Mailing Lists


  • Dov Grobgeld's Bidirectional Work
    • FriBidi - A library implementing the UniCode Bidi algorithm
    • protobidi - A prototype bidirectional widget
  • Existing Text Layout Systems
    • Uniscribe - Microsoft's API for handling bidirectional and complex text.
    • Documents on internationalization issues in the Mozilla project.
    • ATSUI - Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging
    • International text in JDK 1.2
    • - An overview of the TextLayout capabilities in Java 2.
  • Omega - Unicode enabled variant of TeX. Very cool typography.
  • Fonts
    • OpenType - Adobe's and Microsoft's technology for providing the additional font information necessary for rendering international text with high quality. There is also a specification for the way the OpenType works with Indic fonts.
    • Apple's font technology
    • An effort to provide a complete unicode font
  • Unicode
  • Information about specific languages


  • The Unicode Consortium

    The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0

    ISBN 0-201-61633-5

    The definitive source of information about Unicode; it also includes a lot of information relevant to internationalization in general.

  • Ken Lunde

    CJKV Information Processing

    ISBN 1-56592-224-7

    A very comprehensive treatment of internationalization with respect to the languages of East Asia. (CJKV = China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.)

Last modified 19-Mar-2001
Owen Taylor <>