United States Government Configuration Baseline (USGCB / STIG) - DRAFT


CCE ID Rule Title Description Rationale Variable Setting NIST 800-53 Mapping
CCE-80349-4 The Installed Operating System Is Vendor Supported and Certified The installed operating system must be maintained and certified by a vendor. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is supported by Red Hat, Inc. As the Red Hat Enterprise Linux vendor, Red Hat, Inc. is responsible for providing security patches as well as meeting and maintaining goverment certifications and standards. An operating system is considered "supported" if the vendor continues to provide security patches for the product as well as maintain government certification requirements. With an unsupported release, it will not be possible to resolve security issue discovered in the system software as well as meet government certifications. SI-2(c)
CCE-27293-0 Set Password Minimum Length The pam_pwquality module's minlen parameter controls requirements for minimum characters required in a password. Add minlen= after pam_pwquality to set minimum password length requirements. The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one factor of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromose the password.
IA-5(1)(a)
CCE-27123-9 Set Password Minimum Length in login.defs To specify password length requirements for new accounts, edit the file /etc/login.defs and add or correct the following lines:
PASS_MIN_LEN 14


The DoD requirement is 15. The FISMA requirement is 12. If a program consults /etc/login.defs and also another PAM module (such as pam_pwquality) during a password change operation, then the most restrictive must be satisfied. See PAM section for more information about enforcing password quality requirements.
Requiring a minimum password length makes password cracking attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space. However, any security benefit from an onerous requirement must be carefully weighed against usability problems, support costs, or counterproductive behavior that may result. IA-5(f)
IA-5(1)(a)
CCE-27360-7 Set Password Strength Minimum Special Characters The pam_pwquality module's ocredit= parameter controls requirements for usage of special (or "other") characters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many special characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each special character. Modify the ocredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to equal to require use of a special character in passwords. Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possble combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring a minimum number of special characters makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
IA-5(b)
IA-5(c)
IA-5(1)(a)
CCE-27214-6 Set Password Strength Minimum Digit Characters The pam_pwquality module's dcredit parameter controls requirements for usage of digits in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many digits. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each digit. Modify the dcredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of a digit in passwords. Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possble combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring digits makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
IA-5(1)(a)
IA-5(b)
IA-5(c)
194
CCE-27200-5 Set Password Strength Minimum Uppercase Characters The pam_pwquality module's ucredit= parameter controls requirements for usage of uppercase letters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many uppercase characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each uppercase character. Modify the ucredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of an uppercase character in passwords. Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources reuiqred to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
IA-5(b)
IA-5(c)
IA-5(1)(a)
CCE-27345-8 Set Password Strength Minimum Lowercase Characters The pam_pwquality module's lcredit parameter controls requirements for usage of lowercase letters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many lowercase characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each lowercase character. Modify the lcredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of a lowercase character in passwords. Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possble combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring a minimum number of lowercase characters makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
IA-5(b)
IA-5(c)
IA-5(1)(a)
CCE-27351-6 Install the screen Package To enable console screen locking, install the screen package:
$ sudo yum install screen
Instruct users to begin new terminal sessions with the following command:
$ screen
The console can now be locked with the following key combination:
ctrl+a x
A session time-out lock is a temporary action taken when a user stops work and moves away from the immediate physical vicinity of the information system but des not logout because of the temporary nature of the absence. Rather than relying on the user to manually lock their operation system session prior to vacating the vicinity, operating systems need to be able to identify when a user's session has idled and take action to initiate the session lock.

The screen package allows for a session lock to be implemented and configured.
AC-11(a)
CCE-27433-2 Set SSH Idle Timeout Interval SSH allows administrators to set an idle timeout interval. After this interval has passed, the idle user will be automatically logged out.

To set an idle timeout interval, edit the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config as follows:
ClientAliveInterval interval
The timeout interval is given in seconds. To have a timeout of 10 minutes, set interval to 600.

If a shorter timeout has already been set for the login shell, that value will preempt any SSH setting made here. Keep in mind that some processes may stop SSH from correctly detecting that the user is idle.
Terminating an idle ssh session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been let unattended. AC-2(5)
SA-8(i)
AC-12
CCE-27352-4 Verify All Account Password Hashes are Shadowed If any password hashes are stored in /etc/passwd (in the second field, instead of an x or *), the cause of this misconfiguration should be investigated. The account should have its password reset and the hash should be properly stored, or the account should be deleted entirely. The hashes for all user account passwords should be stored in the file /etc/shadow and never in /etc/passwd, which is readable by all users. IA-5(h)
CCE-27309-4 Set Boot Loader Password The grub2 boot loader should have a superuser account and password protection enabled to protect boot-time settings.

To do so, select a superuser account and password and add them into the /etc/grub.d/01_users configuration file.

Since plaintext passwords are a security risk, generate a hash for the pasword by running the following command:
$ grub2-mkpasswd-pbkdf2
When prompted, enter the password that was selected and insert the returned password hash into the /etc/grub.d/01_users configuration file immediately after the superuser account. (Use the output from grub2-mkpasswd-pbkdf2 as the value of password-hash):
password_pbkdf2 superusers-account password-hash
NOTE: It is recommended not to use common administrator account names like root, admin, or administrator for the grub2 superuser account.

To meet FISMA Moderate, the bootloader superuser account and password MUST differ from the root account and password. Once the superuser account and password have been added, update the grub.cfg file by running:
grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
NOTE: Do NOT manually add the superuser account and password to the grub.cfg file as the grub2-mkconfig command overwrites this file.
Password protection on the boot loader configuration ensures users with physical access cannot trivially alter important bootloader settings. These include which kernel to use, and whether to enter single-user mode. For more information on how to configure the grub2 superuser account and password, please refer to IA-2(1)
IA-5(e)
AC-3
CCE-80354-4 Set the UEFI Boot Loader Password The UEFI grub2 boot loader should have a superuser account and password protection enabled to protect boot-time settings.

To do so, select a superuser account and password and add them into the /etc/grub.d/01_users configuration file.

Since plaintext passwords are a security risk, generate a hash for the pasword by running the following command:
$ grub2-mkpasswd-pbkdf2
When prompted, enter the password that was selected and insert the returned password hash into the /etc/grub.d/01_users configuration file immediately after the superuser account. (Use the output from grub2-mkpasswd-pbkdf2 as the value of password-hash):
password_pbkdf2 superusers-account password-hash
NOTE: It is recommended not to use common administrator account names like root, admin, or administrator for the grub2 superuser account.

To meet FISMA Moderate, the bootloader superuser account and password MUST differ from the root account and password. Once the superuser account and password have been added, update the grub.cfg file by running:
grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/efi/EFI/redhat/grub.cfg
NOTE: Do NOT manually add the superuser account and password to the grub.cfg file as the grub2-mkconfig command overwrites this file.
Password protection on the boot loader configuration ensures users with physical access cannot trivially alter important bootloader settings. These include which kernel to use, and whether to enter single-user mode. For more information on how to configure the grub2 superuser account and password, please refer to AC-3
CCE-27335-9 Verify that Interactive Boot is Disabled Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems support an "interactive boot" option that can be used to prevent services from being started. On a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 system, interactive boot can be enabled by providing a 1, yes, true, or on value to the systemd.confirm_spawn kernel argument in /etc/default/grub. Remove any instance of
systemd.confirm_spawn=(1|yes|true|on)
from the kernel arguments in that file to disable interactive boot.
Using interactive boot, the console user could disable auditing, firewalls, or other services, weakening system security. SC-2
AC-3
CCE-27294-8 Direct root Logins Not Allowed To further limit access to the root account, administrators can disable root logins at the console by editing the /etc/securetty file. This file lists all devices the root user is allowed to login to. If the file does not exist at all, the root user can login through any communication device on the system, whether via the console or via a raw network interface. This is dangerous as user can login to the system as root via Telnet, which sends the password in plain text over the network. By default, Red Hat Enteprise Linux's /etc/securetty file only allows the root user to login at the console physically attached to the system. To prevent root from logging in, remove the contents of this file. To prevent direct root logins, remove the contents of this file by typing the following command:
$ sudo echo > /etc/securetty
Disabling direct root logins ensures proper accountability and multifactor authentication to privileged accounts. Users will first login, then escalate to privileged (root) access via su / sudo. This is required for FISMA Low and FISMA Moderate systems. IA-2(1)
CCE-27286-4 Prevent Log In to Accounts With Empty Password If an account is configured for password authentication but does not have an assigned password, it may be possible to log into the account without authentication. Remove any instances of the nullok option in /etc/pam.d/system-auth to prevent logins with empty passwords. If an account has an empty password, anyone could log in and run commands with the privileges of that account. Accounts with empty passwords should never be used in operational environments. AC-6
IA-5(b)
IA-5(c)
IA-5(1)(a)
CCE-27287-2 Require Authentication for Single User Mode Single-user mode is intended as a system recovery method, providing a single user root access to the system by providing a boot option at startup. By default, no authentication is performed if single-user mode is selected.

By default, single-user mode is protected by requiring a password and is set in /usr/lib/systemd/system/rescue.service.
This prevents attackers with physical access from trivially bypassing security on the machine and gaining root access. Such accesses are further prevented by configuring the bootloader password. IA-2(1)
AC-3
CCE-27268-2 Restrict Serial Port Root Logins To restrict root logins on serial ports, ensure lines of this form do not appear in /etc/securetty:
ttyS0
ttyS1
Preventing direct root login to serial port interfaces helps ensure accountability for actions taken on the systems using the root account. AC-6(2)
CCE-27318-5 Restrict Virtual Console Root Logins To restrict root logins through the (deprecated) virtual console devices, ensure lines of this form do not appear in /etc/securetty:
vc/1
vc/2
vc/3
vc/4
Preventing direct root login to virtual console devices helps ensure accountability for actions taken on the system using the root account. AC-6(2)
CCE-80206-6 Disable debug-shell SystemD Service SystemD's debug-shell service is intended to diagnose SystemD related boot issues with various systemctl commands. Once enabled and following a system reboot, the root shell will be available on tty9 which is access by pressing CTRL-ALT-F9. The debug-shell service should only be used for SystemD related issues and should otherwise be disabled.

By default, the debug-shell SystemD service is disabled. The debug-shell service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl disable debug-shell.service
This prevents attackers with physical access from trivially bypassing security on the machine through valid troubleshooting configurations and gaining root access when the system is rebooted.
CCE-27471-2 Disable SSH Access via Empty Passwords To explicitly disallow SSH login from accounts with empty passwords, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
PermitEmptyPasswords no

Any accounts with empty passwords should be disabled immediately, and PAM configuration should prevent users from being able to assign themselves empty passwords.
Configuring this setting for the SSH daemon provides additional assurance that remote login via SSH will require a password, even in the event of misconfiguration elsewhere. AC-3
AC-6
CM-6(b)
CCE-27445-6 Disable SSH Root Login The root user should never be allowed to login to a system directly over a network. To disable root login via SSH, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
PermitRootLogin no
Even though the communications channel may be encrypted, an additional layer of security is gained by extending the policy of not logging directly on as root. In addition, logging in with a user-specific account provides individual accountability of actions performed on the system and also helps to minimize direct attack attempts on root's password. AC-3
AC-6(2)
IA-2(1)
IA-2(5)
CCE-80352-8 Ensure the Logon Failure Delay is Set Correctly in login.defs To ensure the logon failure delay controlled by /etc/login.defs is set properly, add or correct the FAIL_DELAY setting in /etc/login.defs to read as follows:
FAIL_DELAY 
Increasing the time between a failed authentication attempt and re-prompting to enter credentials helps to slow a single-threaded brute force attack. CM-6(b)
CCE-27160-1 Set Password Retry Prompts Permitted Per-Session To configure the number of retry prompts that are permitted per-session:

Edit the pam_pwquality.so statement in /etc/pam.d/system-auth to show retry=, or a lower value if site policy is more restrictive.

The DoD requirement is a maximum of 3 prompts per session.
Setting the password retry prompts that are permitted on a per-session basis to a low value requires some software, such as SSH, to re-connect. This can slow down and draw additional attention to some types of password-guessing attacks. Note that this is different from account lockout, which is provided by the pam_faillock module. CM-6(b)
IA-5(c)
CCE-80353-6 Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts To configure the system to lock out the root account after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so, modify the content of both /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth as follows:

  • Modify the following line in the AUTH section to add even_deny_root:
    auth required pam_faillock.so preauth silent even_deny_root deny= unlock_time= fail_interval=
  • Modify the following line in the AUTH section to add even_deny_root:
    auth [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail even_deny_root deny= unlock_time= fail_interval=
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account. AC-7(b)
CCE-27350-8 Set Deny For Failed Password Attempts To configure the system to lock out accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so, modify the content of both /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth as follows:

  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth required pam_faillock.so preauth silent deny= unlock_time= fail_interval=
  • add the following line immediately after the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail deny= unlock_time= fail_interval=
  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the ACCOUNT section:
    account required pam_faillock.so
Locking out user accounts after a number of incorrect attempts prevents direct password guessing attacks. AC-7(b)
CCE-27297-1 Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts Utilizing pam_faillock.so, the fail_interval directive configures the system to lock out an accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts within a specified time period. Modify the content of both /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth as follows:

  • Add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth required pam_faillock.so preauth silent deny= unlock_time= fail_interval=
  • Add the following line immediately after the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail deny= unlock_time= fail_interval=
  • Add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the ACCOUNT section:
    account required pam_faillock.so
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account. AC-7(b)
CCE-26884-7 Set Lockout Time For Failed Password Attempts To configure the system to lock out accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts and require an administrator to unlock the account using pam_faillock.so, modify the content of both /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth as follows:

  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth required pam_faillock.so preauth silent deny= unlock_time= fail_interval=
  • add the following line immediately after the pam_unix.so statement in the AUTH section:
    auth [default=die] pam_faillock.so authfail deny= unlock_time= fail_interval=
  • add the following line immediately before the pam_unix.so statement in the ACCOUNT section:
    account required pam_faillock.so
Locking out user accounts after a number of incorrect attempts prevents direct password guessing attacks. Ensuring that an administrator is involved in unlocking locked accounts draws appropriate attention to such situations. AC-7(b)
CCE-27361-5 Verify firewalld Enabled The firewalld service can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable firewalld.service
Access control methods provide the ability to enhance system security posture by restricting services and known good IP addresses and address ranges. This prevents connections from unknown hosts and protocols. CM-6(b)
CCE-27349-0 Set Default firewalld Zone for Incoming Packets To set the default zone to drop for the built-in default zone which processes incoming IPv4 and IPv6 packets, modify the following line in /etc/firewalld/firewalld.conf to be:
DefaultZone=drop
In firewalld the default zone is applied only after all the applicable rules in the table are examined for a match. Setting the default zone to drop implements proper design for a firewall, i.e. any packets which are not explicitly permitted should not be accepted. CM-6(b)
CM-7
CCE-80175-3 Disable IPv6 Networking Support Automatic Loading To disable support for (ipv6) add the following line to /etc/sysctl.d/ipv6.conf (or another file in /etc/sysctl.d):
net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 1
This disables IPv6 on all network interfaces as other services and system functionality require the IPv6 stack loaded to work.
Any unnecessary network stacks - including IPv6 - should be disabled, to reduce the vulnerability to exploitation. CM-7
CCE-80158-9 Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting ICMP Redirects for All Interfaces To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0
ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages modify the host's route table and are unauthenticated. An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.
This feature of the IPv4 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless absolutely required.
CM-6(d)
CM-7
SC-5
CCE-27434-0 Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting Source-Routed Packets for All Interfaces To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0
Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures. This requirement applies only to the forwarding of source-routerd traffic, such as when IPv4 forwarding is enabled and the system is functioning as a router.

Accepting source-routed packets in the IPv4 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required.
AC-4
CM-7
SC-5
CCE-80160-5 Configure Kernel Parameter to Log Martian Packets To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1
The presence of "martian" packets (which have impossible addresses) as well as spoofed packets, source-routed packets, and redirects could be a sign of nefarious network activity. Logging these packets enables this activity to be detected. AC-17(7)
CM-7
SC-5(3)
CCE-80167-0 Configure Kernel Parameter to Use Reverse Path Filtering for All Interfaces To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1
Enabling reverse path filtering drops packets with source addresses that should not have been able to be received on the interface they were received on. It should not be used on systems which are routers for complicated networks, but is helpful for end hosts and routers serving small networks. AC-4
SC-5
SC-7
CCE-80159-7 Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting Secure Redirects for All Interfaces To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects = 0
Accepting "secure" ICMP redirects (from those gateways listed as default gateways) has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required. AC-4
CM-7
SC-5
CCE-80156-3 Disable Kernel Parameter for Sending ICMP Redirects for All Interfaces To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0
ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages contain information from the system's route table possibly revealing portions of the network topology.
The ability to send ICMP redirects is only appropriate for systems acting as routers.
AC-4
CM-7
SC-5(1)
CCE-80163-9 Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting ICMP Redirects By Default To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0
ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages modify the host's route table and are unauthenticated. An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.
This feature of the IPv4 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless absolutely required.
AC-4
CM-7
SC-5
SC-7
CCE-80162-1 Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting Source-Routed Packets By Default To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0
Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures.
Accepting source-routed packets in the IPv4 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required, such as when IPv4 forwarding is enabled and the system is legitimately functioning as a router.
AC-4
CM-7
SC-5
SC-7
CCE-80161-3 Configure Kernel Parameter to Log Martian Packets By Default To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.log_martians kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.log_martians=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.default.log_martians = 1
The presence of "martian" packets (which have impossible addresses) as well as spoofed packets, source-routed packets, and redirects could be a sign of nefarious network activity. Logging these packets enables this activity to be detected. AC-17(7)
CM-7
SC-5(3)
CCE-80168-8 Configure Kernel Parameter to Use Reverse Path Filtering by Default To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1
Enabling reverse path filtering drops packets with source addresses that should not have been able to be received on the interface they were received on. It should not be used on systems which are routers for complicated networks, but is helpful for end hosts and routers serving small networks. AC-4
SC-5
SC-7
CCE-80164-7 Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting Secure Redirects By Default To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects = 0
Accepting "secure" ICMP redirects (from those gateways listed as default gateways) has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required. AC-4
CM-7
SC-5
SC-7
CCE-80156-3 Disable Kernel Parameter for Sending ICMP Redirects by Default To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects = 0
ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages contain information from the system's route table possibly revealing portions of the network topology.
The ability to send ICMP redirects is only appropriate for systems acting as routers.
AC-4
CM-7
SC-5
SC-7
CCE-80165-4 Configure Kernel Parameter to Ignore ICMP Broadcast Echo Requests To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1
Responding to broadcast (ICMP) echoes facilitates network mapping and provides a vector for amplification attacks.
Ignoring ICMP echo requests (pings) sent to broadcast or multicast addresses makes the system slightly more difficult to enumerate on the network.
AC-4
CM-7
SC-5
CCE-80166-2 Configure Kernel Parameter to Ignore Bogus ICMP Error Responses To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses = 1
Ignoring bogus ICMP error responses reduces log size, although some activity would not be logged. CM-7
SC-5
CCE-80157-1 Disable Kernel Parameter for IP Forwarding To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.ip_forward kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0
Routing protocol daemons are typically used on routers to exchange network topology information with other routers. If this capability is used when not required, system network information may be unnecessarily transmitted across the network. CM-7
SC-5
SC-32
CCE-27495-1 Configure Kernel Parameter to Use TCP Syncookies To set the runtime status of the net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
A TCP SYN flood attack can cause a denial of service by filling a system's TCP connection table with connections in the SYN_RCVD state. Syncookies can be used to track a connection when a subsequent ACK is received, verifying the initiator is attempting a valid connection and is not a flood source. This feature is activated when a flood condition is detected, and enables the system to continue servicing valid connection requests. AC-4
SC-5(1)(2)
SC-5(2)
SC-5(3)
CCE-80180-3 Configure Accepting IPv6 Router Advertisements To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra = 0
An illicit router advertisement message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack. CM-7
CCE-80182-9 Configure Accepting IPv6 Redirects By Default To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0
An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack. CM-7
CCE-80179-5 Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting Source-Routed Packets for All Interfaces To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0
Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures. This requirement applies only to the forwarding of source-routerd traffic, such as when IPv6 forwarding is enabled and the system is functioning as a router.

Accepting source-routed packets in the IPv6 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required.
AC-4
CCE-80356-9 Disable Kernel Parameter for IPv6 Forwarding To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding = 0
IP forwarding permits the kernel to forward packets from one network interface to another. The ability to forward packets between two networks is only appropriate for systems acting as routers. CM-7
SC-5
CCE-80181-1 Configure Accepting IPv6 Router Advertisements To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra = 0
An illicit router advertisement message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack. CM-7
CCE-80183-7 Configure Accepting IPv6 Redirects By Default To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0
An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack. CM-7
CCE-80335-1 Configure Kernel Parameter for Accepting Source-Routed Packets for Interfaces By Default To set the runtime status of the net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0
Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures. This requirement applies only to the forwarding of source-routerd traffic, such as when IPv6 forwarding is enabled and the system is functioning as a router. Accepting source-routed packets in the IPv6 protocol has few legitimate uses. It should be disabled unless it is absolutely required. AC-4
CCE-27341-7 Configure auditd to use audispd's syslog plugin To configure the auditd service to use the syslog plug-in of the audispd audit event multiplexor, set the active line in /etc/audisp/plugins.d/syslog.conf to yes. Restart the auditd service:
$ sudo service auditd restart
The auditd service does not include the ability to send audit records to a centralized server for management directly. It does, however, include a plug-in for audit event multiplexor (audispd) to pass audit records to the local syslog server AU-1(b)
AU-3(2)
IR-5
CCE-27343-3 Ensure Logs Sent To Remote Host To configure rsyslog to send logs to a remote log server, open /etc/rsyslog.conf and read and understand the last section of the file, which describes the multiple directives necessary to activate remote logging. Along with these other directives, the system can be configured to forward its logs to a particular log server by adding or correcting one of the following lines, substituting loghost.example.com appropriately. The choice of protocol depends on the environment of the system; although TCP and RELP provide more reliable message delivery, they may not be supported in all environments.
To use UDP for log message delivery:
*.* @loghost.example.com

To use TCP for log message delivery:
*.* @@loghost.example.com

To use RELP for log message delivery:
*.* :omrelp:loghost.example.com
A log server (loghost) receives syslog messages from one or more systems. This data can be used as an additional log source in the event a system is compromised and its local logs are suspect. Forwarding log messages to a remote loghost also provides system administrators with a centralized place to view the status of multiple hosts within the enterprise. AU-3(2)
AU-4(1)
AU-9
CCE-27394-6 Configure auditd mail_acct Action on Low Disk Space The auditd service can be configured to send email to a designated account in certain situations. Add or correct the following line in /etc/audit/auditd.conf to ensure that administrators are notified via email for those situations:
action_mail_acct = 
Email sent to the root account is typically aliased to the administrators of the system, who can take appropriate action. AU-1(b)
AU-4
AU-5(1)
AU-5(a)
IR-5
CCE-27370-6 Configure auditd admin_space_left Action on Low Disk Space The auditd service can be configured to take an action when disk space is running low but prior to running out of space completely. Edit the file /etc/audit/auditd.conf. Add or modify the following line, substituting ACTION appropriately:
admin_space_left_action = ACTION
Set this value to single to cause the system to switch to single user mode for corrective action. Acceptable values also include suspend and halt. For certain systems, the need for availability outweighs the need to log all actions, and a different setting should be determined. Details regarding all possible values for ACTION are described in the auditd.conf man page.
Administrators should be made aware of an inability to record audit records. If a separate partition or logical volume of adequate size is used, running low on space for audit records should never occur. AU-1(b)
AU-4
AU-5(b)
IR-5
CCE-27231-0 Configure auditd max_log_file_action Upon Reaching Maximum Log Size The default action to take when the logs reach their maximum size is to rotate the log files, discarding the oldest one. To configure the action taken by auditd, add or correct the line in /etc/audit/auditd.conf:
max_log_file_action = ACTION
Possible values for ACTION are described in the auditd.conf man page. These include:
  • ignore
  • syslog
  • suspend
  • rotate
  • keep_logs
Set the ACTION to rotate to ensure log rotation occurs. This is the default. The setting is case-insensitive.
Automatically rotating logs (by setting this to rotate) minimizes the chances of the system unexpectedly running out of disk space by being overwhelmed with log data. However, for systems that must never discard log data, or which use external processes to transfer it and reclaim space, keep_logs can be employed. AU-1(b)
AU-4
AU-11
IR-5
CCE-27319-3 Configure auditd Max Log File Size Determine the amount of audit data (in megabytes) which should be retained in each log file. Edit the file /etc/audit/auditd.conf. Add or modify the following line, substituting the correct value of for STOREMB:
max_log_file = STOREMB
Set the value to 6 (MB) or higher for general-purpose systems. Larger values, of course, support retention of even more audit data.
The total storage for audit log files must be large enough to retain log information over the period required. This is a function of the maximum log file size and the number of logs retained. AU-1(b)
AU-11
IR-5
CCE-27348-2 Configure auditd Number of Logs Retained Determine how many log files auditd should retain when it rotates logs. Edit the file /etc/audit/auditd.conf. Add or modify the following line, substituting NUMLOGS with the correct value of :
num_logs = NUMLOGS
Set the value to 5 for general-purpose systems. Note that values less than 2 result in no log rotation.
The total storage for audit log files must be large enough to retain log information over the period required. This is a function of the maximum log file size and the number of logs retained. AU-1(b)
AU-11
IR-5
CCE-27375-5 Configure auditd space_left Action on Low Disk Space The auditd service can be configured to take an action when disk space starts to run low. Edit the file /etc/audit/auditd.conf. Modify the following line, substituting ACTION appropriately:
space_left_action = ACTION
Possible values for ACTION are described in the auditd.conf man page. These include:
  • ignore
  • syslog
  • email
  • exec
  • suspend
  • single
  • halt
Set this to email (instead of the default, which is suspend) as it is more likely to get prompt attention. Acceptable values also include suspend, single, and halt.
Notifying administrators of an impending disk space problem may allow them to take corrective action prior to any disruption. AU-1(b)
AU-4
AU-5(1)
AU-5(b)
IR-5
CCE-27205-4 System Audit Logs Must Have Mode 0640 or Less Permissive If log_group in /etc/audit/auditd.conf is set to a group other than the root group account, change the mode of the audit log files with the following command:
$ sudo chmod 0640 audit_file

Otherwise, change the mode of the audit log files with the following command:
$ sudo chmod 0600 audit_file
If users can write to audit logs, audit trails can be modified or destroyed. AC-6
AU-1(b)
AU-9
IR-5
CCE-27331-8 Configure auditd flush priority The auditd service can be configured to synchronously write audit event data to disk. Add or correct the following line in /etc/audit/auditd.conf to ensure that audit event data is fully synchronized with the log files on the disk:
flush = 
Audit data should be synchronously written to disk to ensure log integrity. These parameters assure that all audit event data is fully synchronized with the log files on the disk. AU-9
AU-12(1)
CCE-27339-1 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chmod At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27364-9 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chown At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27388-8 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchmodat At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27393-8 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchmod At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27387-0 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchownat At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27356-5 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchown At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27353-2 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fremovexattr At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27389-6 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fsetxattr At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27083-5 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lchown At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27410-0 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lremovexattr At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27280-7 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lsetxattr At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27367-2 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - removexattr At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27213-8 Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - setxattr At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=perm_mod
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80393-2 Record Any Attempts to Run chcon At a minimum, the audit system should collect any execution attempt of the chcon command for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/chcon -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged-priv_change
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/chcon -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged-priv_change
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-12(c)
CCE-80394-0 Record Any Attempts to Run restorecon At a minimum, the audit system should collect any execution attempt of the restorecon command for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/sbin/restorecon -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged-priv_change
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/sbin/restorecon -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged-priv_change
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-12(c)
CCE-80391-6 Record Any Attempts to Run semanage At a minimum, the audit system should collect any execution attempt of the semanage command for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/sbin/semanage -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged-priv_change
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/sbin/semanage -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged-priv_change
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-12(c)
CCE-80392-4 Record Any Attempts to Run setsebool At a minimum, the audit system should collect any execution attempt of the setsebool command for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/sbin/setsebool -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged-priv_change
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/sbin/setsebool -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged-priv_change
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-12(c)
CCE-80413-8 Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User - renameat At a minimum, the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
MA-4(1)(a)
CCE-27206-2 Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User - rename At a minimum, the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rename -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rename -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
MA-4(1)(a)
CCE-80412-0 Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User - rmdir At a minimum, the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
MA-4(1)(a)
CCE-27206-2 Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User At a minimum the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdiri,unlink,unlinkat,rename,renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27206-2 Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User - unlinkat At a minimum, the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S unlinkat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S unlinkat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
MA-4(1)(a)
CCE-27206-2 Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User - unlink At a minimum, the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S unlink -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S unlink -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=delete
Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
MA-4(1)(a)
CCE-27097-5 Make the auditd Configuration Immutable If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d in order to make the auditd configuration immutable:
-e 2
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file in order to make the auditd configuration immutable:
-e 2
With this setting, a reboot will be required to change any audit rules.
Making the audit configuration immutable prevents accidental as well as malicious modification of the audit rules, although it may be problematic if legitimate changes are needed during system operation AC-6
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
IR-5
CCE-80415-3 Ensure auditd Collects Information on Kernel Module Loading and Unloading - delete_module If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d to capture kernel module loading and unloading events, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S delete_module -F key=modules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file in order to capture kernel module loading and unloading events, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S delete_module -F key=modules
The addition/removal of kernel modules can be used to alter the behavior of the kernel and potentially introduce malicious code into kernel space. It is important to have an audit trail of modules that have been introduced into the kernel. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80414-6 Ensure auditd Collects Information on Kernel Module Loading and Unloading - init_module If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d to capture kernel module loading and unloading events, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S init_module -F key=modules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file in order to capture kernel module loading and unloading events, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S init_module -F key=modules
The addition/removal of kernel modules can be used to alter the behavior of the kernel and potentially introduce malicious code into kernel space. It is important to have an audit trail of modules that have been introduced into the kernel. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE- Ensure auditd Collects Information on Kernel Module Loading and Unloading - insmod If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d to capture kernel module loading and unloading events, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-w /usr/sbin/insmod -p x -k modules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file in order to capture kernel module loading and unloading events, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-w /usr/sbin/insmod -p x -k modules
The addition/removal of kernel modules can be used to alter the behavior of the kernel and potentially introduce malicious code into kernel space. It is important to have an audit trail of modules that have been introduced into the kernel. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80417-9 Ensure auditd Collects Information on Kernel Module Loading and Unloading - modprobe If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d to capture kernel module loading and unloading events, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-w /usr/sbin/modprobe -p x -k modules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file in order to capture kernel module loading and unloading events, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-w /usr/sbin/modprobe -p x -k modules
The addition/removal of kernel modules can be used to alter the behavior of the kernel and potentially introduce malicious code into kernel space. It is important to have an audit trail of modules that have been introduced into the kernel. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80416-1 Ensure auditd Collects Information on Kernel Module Loading and Unloading - rmmod If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d to capture kernel module loading and unloading events, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-w /usr/sbin/rmmod -p x -k modules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file in order to capture kernel module loading and unloading events, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-w /usr/sbin/rmmod -p x -k modules
The addition/removal of kernel modules can be used to alter the behavior of the kernel and potentially introduce malicious code into kernel space. It is important to have an audit trail of modules that have been introduced into the kernel. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80383-3 Record Attempts to Alter Logon and Logout Events - faillock The audit system already collects login information for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d in order to watch for attempted manual edits of files involved in storing logon events:
-w /var/run/faillock/ -p wa -k logins
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file in order to watch for unattempted manual edits of files involved in storing logon events:
-w /var/run/faillock/ -p wa -k logins
Manual editing of these files may indicate nefarious activity, such as an attacker attempting to remove evidence of an intrusion. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80384-1 Record Attempts to Alter Logon and Logout Events - lastlog The audit system already collects login information for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d in order to watch for attempted manual edits of files involved in storing logon events:
-w /var/log/lastlog -p wa -k logins
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file in order to watch for unattempted manual edits of files involved in storing logon events:
-w /var/log/lastlog -p wa -k logins
Manual editing of these files may indicate nefarious activity, such as an attacker attempting to remove evidence of an intrusion. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80382-5 Record Attempts to Alter Logon and Logout Events - tallylog The audit system already collects login information for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d in order to watch for attempted manual edits of files involved in storing logon events:
-w /var/log/tallylog -p wa -k logins
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file in order to watch for unattempted manual edits of files involved in storing logon events:
-w /var/log/tallylog -p wa -k logins
Manual editing of these files may indicate nefarious activity, such as an attacker attempting to remove evidence of an intrusion. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27168-4 Record Events that Modify the System's Mandatory Access Controls If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-w /etc/selinux/ -p wa -k MAC-policy
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-w /etc/selinux/ -p wa -k MAC-policy
The system's mandatory access policy (SELinux) should not be arbitrarily changed by anything other than administrator action. All changes to MAC policy should be audited. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27447-2 Ensure auditd Collects Information on Exporting to Media (successful) At a minimum, the audit system should collect media exportation events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S mount -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=export
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S mount -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=export
The unauthorized exportation of data to external media could result in an information leak where classified information, Privacy Act information, and intellectual property could be lost. An audit trail should be created each time a filesystem is mounted to help identify and guard against information loss. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-3(1)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27076-9 Record Events that Modify the System's Network Environment If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S sethostname,setdomainname -F key=audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/issue -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/issue.net -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/hosts -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/sysconfig/network -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S sethostname,setdomainname -F key=audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/issue -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/issue.net -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/hosts -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
-w /etc/sysconfig/network -p wa -k audit_rules_networkconfig_modification
The network environment should not be modified by anything other than administrator action. Any change to network parameters should be audited. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80398-1 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - chage At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/chage -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/chage -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80404-7 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - chsh At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/chsh -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/chsh -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80410-4 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - crontab At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/crontab -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/crontab -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80397-3 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - gpasswd At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/gpasswd -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/gpasswd -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80403-9 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - newgrp At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/newgrp -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/newgrp -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80411-2 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - pam_timestamp_check At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/sbin/pam_timestamp_check -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/sbin/pam_timestamp_check -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80395-7 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - passwd At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/passwd -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/passwd -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80406-2 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - postdrop At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/sbin/postdrop -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/sbin/postdrop -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80407-0 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - postqueue At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/sbin/postqueue -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/sbin/postqueue -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80409-6 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - pt_chown At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/libexec/pt_chown -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/libexec/pt_chown -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-27437-3 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. To find the relevant setuid / setgid programs, run the following command for each local partition PART:
$ sudo find PART -xdev -type f -perm -4000 -o -type f -perm -2000 2>/dev/null
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d for each setuid / setgid program on the system, replacing the SETUID_PROG_PATH part with the full path of that setuid / setgid program in the list:
-a always,exit -F path=SETUID_PROG_PATH -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules for each setuid / setgid program on the system, replacing the SETUID_PROG_PATH part with the full path of that setuid / setgid program in the list:
-a always,exit -F path=SETUID_PROG_PATH -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-2(4)
AU-6(9)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80408-8 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - ssh-keysign At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/libexec/openssh/ssh-keysign -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/libexec/openssh/key-sign -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80402-1 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - sudoedit At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/sudoedit -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/sudoedit -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80401-3 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - sudo At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/sudo -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/sudo -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80400-5 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - su At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/su -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/su -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80405-4 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - umount At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/umount -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/umount -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80396-5 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - unix_chkpwd At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/unix_chkpwd -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/unix_chkpwd -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-80399-9 Ensure auditd Collects Information on the Use of Privileged Commands - userhelper At a minimum, the audit system should collect the execution of privileged commands for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add a line of the following form to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/userhelper -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add a line of the following form to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F path=/usr/bin/userhelper -F perm=x -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=privileged
Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider and advanced persistent threast.

Privileged programs are subject to escalation-of-privilege attacks, which attempt to subvert their normal role of providing some necessary but limited capability. As such, motivation exists to monitor these programs for unusual activity.
AU-3(1)
AU-12(c)
CCE-27301-1 Record Attempts to Alter Process and Session Initiation Information The audit system already collects process information for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d in order to watch for attempted manual edits of files involved in storing such process information:
-w /var/run/utmp -p wa -k session
-w /var/log/btmp -p wa -k session
-w /var/log/wtmp -p wa -k session
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file in order to watch for attempted manual edits of files involved in storing such process information:
-w /var/run/utmp -p wa -k session
-w /var/log/btmp -p wa -k session
-w /var/log/wtmp -p wa -k session
Manual editing of these files may indicate nefarious activity, such as an attacker attempting to remove evidence of an intrusion. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27461-3 Ensure auditd Collects System Administrator Actions At a minimum, the audit system should collect administrator actions for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-w /etc/sudoers -p wa -k actions
-w /etc/sudoers.d/ -p wa -k actions
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-w /etc/sudoers -p wa -k actions
-w /etc/sudoers.d/ -p wa -k actions
The actions taken by system administrators should be audited to keep a record of what was executed on the system, as well as, for accountability purposes. AC-2(7)(b)
AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
iAU-3(1)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80381-7 Shutdown System When Auditing Failures Occur If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-f 2
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to the top of the /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-f 2
It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without this notification, the security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability, and system operation may be adversely affected.

Audit processing failures include software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded.
AU-5
AU-5(a)
CCE-27290-6 Record attempts to alter time through adjtimex If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex -F key=audit_time_rules
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined syscalls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27219-5 Record Attempts to Alter Time Through clock_settime If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S clock_settime -F a0=0x0 -F key=time-change
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined syscalls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27216-1 Record attempts to alter time through settimeofday If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined syscalls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27299-7 Record Attempts to Alter Time Through stime If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S stime -F key=audit_time_rules
Since the 64 bit version of the "stime" system call is not defined in the audit lookup table, the corresponding "-F arch=b64" form of this rule is not expected to be defined on 64 bit systems (the aforementioned "-F arch=b32" stime rule form itself is sufficient for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems). If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S stime -F key=audit_time_rules
Since the 64 bit version of the "stime" system call is not defined in the audit lookup table, the corresponding "-F arch=b64" form of this rule is not expected to be defined on 64 bit systems (the aforementioned "-F arch=b32" stime rule form itself is sufficient for both 32 bit and 64 bit systems). The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport. Multiple system calls can be defined on the same line to save space if desired, but is not required. See an example of multiple combined system calls:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S adjtimex,settimeofday -F key=audit_time_rules
Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27310-2 Record Attempts to Alter the localtime File If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-w /etc/localtime -p wa -k audit_time_rules
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-w /etc/localtime -p wa -k audit_time_rules
The -k option allows for the specification of a key in string form that can be used for better reporting capability through ausearch and aureport and should always be used.
Arbitrary changes to the system time can be used to obfuscate nefarious activities in log files, as well as to confuse network services that are highly dependent upon an accurate system time (such as sshd). All changes to the system time should be audited. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(b)
IR-5
CCE-80385-8 Record Unauthorized Access Attempts to Files (unsuccessful) - creat At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80390-8 Record Unauthorized Access Attempts to Files (unsuccessful) - ftruncate At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S ftruncate -F exiu=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80387-4 Record Unauthorized Access Attempts to Files (unsuccessful) - openat At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S openat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S openat -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80388-2 Record Unauthorized Access Attempts to Files (unsuccessful) - open_by_handle_at At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open_by_handle_at -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80386-6 Record Unauthorized Access Attempts to Files (unsuccessful) - open At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S open -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S open -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80389-0 Record Unauthorized Access Attempts to Files (unsuccessful) - truncate At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S truncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S truncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=4294967295 -F key=access
Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise. AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80433-6 Record Events that Modify User/Group Information - /etc/group If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/group -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/group -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
In addition to auditing new user and group accounts, these watches will alert the system administrator(s) to any modifications. Any unexpected users, groups, or modifications should be investigated for legitimacy. AC-2(4)
AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80432-8 Record Events that Modify User/Group Information - /etc/gshadow If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/gshadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/gshadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
In addition to auditing new user and group accounts, these watches will alert the system administrator(s) to any modifications. Any unexpected users, groups, or modifications should be investigated for legitimacy. AC-2(4)
AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80430-2 Record Events that Modify User/Group Information - opasswd If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/security/opasswd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/security/opasswd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
In addition to auditing new user and group accounts, these watches will alert the system administrator(s) to any modifications. Any unexpected users, groups, or modifications should be investigated for legitimacy. AC-2(4)
AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80435-1 Record Events that Modify User/Group Information - passwd If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/passwd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/passwd -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
In addition to auditing new user and group accounts, these watches will alert the system administrator(s) to any modifications. Any unexpected users, groups, or modifications should be investigated for legitimacy. AC-2(4)
AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-80431-0 Record Events that Modify User/Group Information - /etc/shadow If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/shadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, in order to capture events that modify account changes:

-w /etc/shadow -p wa -k audit_rules_usergroup_modification
In addition to auditing new user and group accounts, these watches will alert the system administrator(s) to any modifications. Any unexpected users, groups, or modifications should be investigated for legitimacy. AC-2(4)
AC-17(7)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
IR-5
CCE-27212-0 Enable Auditing for Processes Which Start Prior to the Audit Daemon To ensure all processes can be audited, even those which start prior to the audit daemon, add the argument audit=1 to the default GRUB 2 command line for the Linux operating system in /etc/default/grub, in the manner below:
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="crashkernel=auto rd.lvm.lv=VolGroup/LogVol06 rd.lvm.lv=VolGroup/lv_swap rhgb quiet rd.shell=0 audit=1"
Each process on the system carries an "auditable" flag which indicates whether its activities can be audited. Although auditd takes care of enabling this for all processes which launch after it does, adding the kernel argument ensures it is set for every process during boot. AC-17(1)
AU-14(1)
AU-1(b)
AU-2(a)
AU-2(c)
AU-2(d)
AU-10
IR-5
CCE-80380-9 Ensure cron Is Logging To Rsyslog Cron logging must be implemented to spot intrusions or trace cron job status. If cron is not logging to rsyslog, it can be implemented by adding the following to the RULES section of /etc/rsyslog.conf:
cron.*                                                  /var/log/cron
Cron logging can be used to trace the successful or unsuccessful execution of cron jobs. It can also be used to spot intrusions into the use of the cron facility by unauthorized and malicious users. AU-2(d)
CCE-80192-8 Ensure rsyslog Does Not Accept Remote Messages Unless Acting As Log Server The rsyslog daemon should not accept remote messages unless the system acts as a log server. To ensure that it is not listening on the network, ensure the following lines are not found in /etc/rsyslog.conf:
$ModLoad imtcp
$InputTCPServerRun port
$ModLoad imudp
$UDPServerRun port
$ModLoad imrelp
$InputRELPServerRun port
Any process which receives messages from the network incurs some risk of receiving malicious messages. This risk can be eliminated for rsyslog by configuring it not to listen on the network. AU-9(2)
AC-4
CM-6(c)
CCE-27407-6 Enable auditd Service The auditd service is an essential userspace component of the Linux Auditing System, as it is responsible for writing audit records to disk. The auditd service can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable auditd.service
Without establishing what type of events occurred, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack. Ensuring the auditd service is active ensures audit records generated by the kernel are appropriately recorded.

Additionally, a properly configured audit subsystem ensures that actions of individual system users can be uniquely traced to those users so they can be held accountable for their actions.
AU-3
AC-17(1)
AU-1(b)
AU-10
AU-12(a)
AU-12(c)
AU-14(1)
IR-5
CCE-27278-1 Specify a Remote NTP Server Depending on specific functional requirements of a concrete production environment, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server system can be configured to utilize the services of the chronyd NTP daemon (the default), or services of the ntpd NTP daemon. Refer to https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/System_Administrators_Guide/ch-Configuring_NTP_Using_the_chrony_Suite.html for more detailed comparison of the features of both of the choices, and for further guidance how to choose between the two NTP daemons.
To specify a remote NTP server for time synchronization, perform the following:
  • if the system is configured to use the chronyd as the NTP daemon (the default), edit the file /etc/chrony.conf as follows,
  • if the system is configured to use the ntpd as the NTP daemon, edit the file /etc/ntp.conf as documented below.
Add or correct the following lines, substituting the IP or hostname of a remote NTP server for ntpserver:
server ntpserver
This instructs the NTP software to contact that remote server to obtain time data.
Synchronizing with an NTP server makes it possible to collate system logs from multiple sources or correlate computer events with real time events. AU-8(1)
CCE-27012-4 Specify Additional Remote NTP Servers Depending on specific functional requirements of a concrete production environment, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Server system can be configured to utilize the services of the chronyd NTP daemon (the default), or services of the ntpd NTP daemon. Refer to https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/System_Administrators_Guide/ch-Configuring_NTP_Using_the_chrony_Suite.html for more detailed comparison of the features of both of the choices, and for further guidance how to choose between the two NTP daemons.
Additional NTP servers can be specified for time synchronization. To do so, perform the following:
  • if the system is configured to use the chronyd as the NTP daemon (the default), edit the file /etc/chrony.conf as follows,
  • if the system is configured to use the ntpd as the NTP daemon, edit the file /etc/ntp.conf as documented below.
Add additional lines of the following form, substituting the IP address or hostname of a remote NTP server for ntpserver:
server ntpserver
Specifying additional NTP servers increases the availability of accurate time data, in the event that one of the specified servers becomes unavailable. This is typical for a system acting as an NTP server for other systems. AU-8(1)
CCE-27444-9 Enable the NTP Daemon The chronyd service can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable chronyd.service
Note: The chronyd daemon is enabled by default.

The ntpd service can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable ntpd.service
Note: The ntpd daemon is not enabled by default. Though as mentioned in the previous sections in certain environments the ntpd daemon might be preferred to be used rather than the chronyd one. Refer to: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/System_Administrators_Guide/ch-Configuring_NTP_Using_the_chrony_Suite.html for guidance which NTP daemon to choose depending on the environment used.
Enabling some of chronyd or ntpd services ensures that the NTP daemon will be running and that the system will synchronize its time to any servers specified. This is important whether the system is configured to be a client (and synchronize only its own clock) or it is also acting as an NTP server to other systems. Synchronizing time is essential for authentication services such as Kerberos, but it is also important for maintaining accurate logs and auditing possible security breaches.

The chronyd and ntpd NTP daemons offer all of the functionality of ntpdate, which is now deprecated. Additional information on this is available at http://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Dev/DeprecatingNtpdate
AU-8(1)
CCE-26895-3 Ensure Software Patches Installed If the system is joined to the Red Hat Network, a Red Hat Satellite Server, or a yum server, run the following command to install updates:
$ sudo yum update
If the system is not configured to use one of these sources, updates (in the form of RPM packages) can be manually downloaded from the Red Hat Network and installed using rpm.

NOTE: U.S. Defense systems are required to be patched within 30 days or sooner as local policy dictates.
Installing software updates is a fundamental mitigation against the exploitation of publicly-known vulnerabilities. If the most recent security patches and updates are not installed, unauthorized users may take advantage of weaknesses in the unpatched software. The lack of prompt attention to patching could result in a system compromise. SI-2
SI-2(c)
MA-1(b)
CCE-27358-1 Deactivate Wireless Network Interfaces Deactivating wireless network interfaces should prevent normal usage of the wireless capability.

First, identify the interfaces available with the command:
$ ifconfig -a
Additionally, the following command may be used to determine whether wireless support is included for a particular interface, though this may not always be a clear indicator:
$ iwconfig
After identifying any wireless interfaces (which may have names like wlan0, ath0, wifi0, em1 or eth0), deactivate the interface with the command:
$ sudo ifdown interface
These changes will only last until the next reboot. To disable the interface for future boots, remove the appropriate interface file from /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts:
$ sudo rm /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-interface
Wireless networking allows attackers within physical proximity to launch network-based attacks against systems, including those against local LAN protocols which were not designed with security in mind. AC-17(8)
AC-18(a)
AC-18(d)
AC-18(3)
CM-7
CCE-27327-6 Disable Bluetooth Kernel Modules The kernel's module loading system can be configured to prevent loading of the Bluetooth module. Add the following to the appropriate /etc/modprobe.d configuration file to prevent the loading of the Bluetooth module:
install bluetooth /bin/true
If Bluetooth functionality must be disabled, preventing the kernel from loading the kernel module provides an additional safeguard against its activation. AC-17(8)
AC-18(a)
AC-18(d)
AC-18(3)
CM-7
CCE-27328-4 Disable Bluetooth Service The bluetooth service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl disable bluetooth.service
$ sudo service bluetooth stop
Disabling the bluetooth service prevents the system from attempting connections to Bluetooth devices, which entails some security risk. Nevertheless, variation in this risk decision may be expected due to the utility of Bluetooth connectivity and its limited range. AC-17(8)
AC-18(a)
AC-18(d)
AC-18(3)
CM-7
CCE-26548-8 Disable Kernel Support for USB via Bootloader Configuration All USB support can be disabled by adding the nousb argument to the kernel's boot loader configuration. To do so, append "nousb" to the kernel line in /etc/default/grub as shown:
kernel /vmlinuz-VERSION ro vga=ext root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet nousb
WARNING: Disabling all kernel support for USB will cause problems for systems with USB-based keyboards, mice, or printers. This configuration is infeasible for systems which require USB devices, which is common.
Disabling the USB subsystem within the Linux kernel at system boot will protect against potentially malicious USB devices, although it is only practical in specialized systems. AC-19(a)
AC-19(d)
AC-19(e)
CCE-27277-3 Disable Modprobe Loading of USB Storage Driver To prevent USB storage devices from being used, configure the kernel module loading system to prevent automatic loading of the USB storage driver. To configure the system to prevent the usb-storage kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:
install usb-storage /bin/true
This will prevent the modprobe program from loading the usb-storage module, but will not prevent an administrator (or another program) from using the insmod program to load the module manually.
USB storage devices such as thumb drives can be used to introduce malicious software. AC-19(a)
AC-19(d)
AC-19(e)
IA-3
CCE-27498-5 Disable the Automounter The autofs daemon mounts and unmounts filesystems, such as user home directories shared via NFS, on demand. In addition, autofs can be used to handle removable media, and the default configuration provides the cdrom device as /misc/cd. However, this method of providing access to removable media is not common, so autofs can almost always be disabled if NFS is not in use. Even if NFS is required, it may be possible to configure filesystem mounts statically by editing /etc/fstab rather than relying on the automounter.

The autofs service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl disable autofs.service
Disabling the automounter permits the administrator to statically control filesystem mounting through /etc/fstab.

Additionally, automatically mounting filesystems permits easy introduction of unknown devices, thereby facilitating malicious activity.
AC-19(a)
AC-19(d)
AC-19(e)
IA-3
CCE-27511-5 Disable Ctrl-Alt-Del Reboot Activation By default, SystemD will reboot the system if the Ctrl-Alt-Del key sequence is pressed.

To configure the system to ignore the Ctrl-Alt-Del key sequence from the command line instead of rebooting the system, do either of the following:
ln -sf /dev/null /etc/systemd/system/ctrl-alt-del.target
or
systemctl mask ctrl-alt-del.target


Do not simply delete the /usr/lib/systemd/system/ctrl-alt-del.service file, as this file may be restored during future system updates.
A locally logged-in user who presses Ctrl-Alt-Del, when at the console, can reboot the system. If accidentally pressed, as could happen in the case of mixed OS environment, this can create the risk of short-term loss of availability of systems due to unintentional reboot. AC-6
CCE-80171-2 Verify Any Configured IPSec Tunnel Connections Libreswan provides an implementation of IPsec and IKE, which permits the creation of secure tunnels over untrusted networks. As such, IPsec can be used to circumvent certain network requirements such as filtering. Verify that if any IPsec connection (conn) configured in /etc/ipsec.conf and /etc/ipsec.d exists is an approved organizational connection. IP tunneling mechanisms can be used to bypass network filtering. AC-4
CCE-27406-8 Remove Rsh Trust Files The files /etc/hosts.equiv and ~/.rhosts (in each user's home directory) list remote hosts and users that are trusted by the local system when using the rshd daemon. To remove these files, run the following command to delete them from any location:
$ sudo rm /etc/hosts.equiv
$ rm ~/.rhosts
Trust files are convenient, but when used in conjunction with the R-services, they can allow unauthenticated access to a system. AC-17(8)
CM-7
CCE-27274-0 Uninstall rsh Package The rsh package contains the client commands for the rsh services These legacy clients contain numerous security exposures and have been replaced with the more secure SSH package. Even if the server is removed, it is best to ensure the clients are also removed to prevent users from inadvertently attempting to use these commands and therefore exposing their credentials. Note that removing the rsh package removes the clients for rsh,rcp, and rlogin.
CCE-27342-5 Uninstall rsh-server Package The rsh-server package can be uninstalled with the following command:
$ sudo yum erase rsh-server
The rsh-server service provides unencrypted remote access service which does not provide for the confidentiality and integrity of user passwords or the remote session and has very weak authentication. If a privileged user were to login using this service, the privileged user password could be compromised. The rsh-server package provides several obsolete and insecure network services. Removing it decreases the risk of those services' accidental (or intentional) activation. AC-17(8)
CM-7(a)
CCE-27432-4 Uninstall talk Package The talk package contains the client program for the Internet talk protocol, which allows the user to chat with other users on different systems. Talk is a communication program which copies lines from one terminal to the terminal of another user. The talk package can be removed with the following command:
$ sudo yum erase talk
The talk software presents a security risk as it uses unencrypted protocols for communications. Removing the talk package decreases the risk of the accidental (or intentional) activation of talk client program.
CCE-27210-4 Uninstall talk-server Package The talk-server package can be removed with the following command:
$ sudo yum erase talk-server
The talk software presents a security risk as it uses unencrypted protocols for communications. Removing the talk-server package decreases the risk of the accidental (or intentional) activation of talk services.
CCE-27305-2 Remove telnet Clients The telnet client allows users to start connections to other systems via the telnet protocol. The telnet protocol is insecure and unencrypted. The use of an unencrypted transmission medium could allow an unauthorized user to steal credentials. The ssh package provides an encrypted session and stronger security and is included in Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
CCE-27165-0 Uninstall telnet-server Package The telnet-server package can be uninstalled with the following command:
$ sudo yum erase telnet-server
It is detrimental for operating systems to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. These unnecessary capabilities are often overlooked and therefore may remain unsecure. They increase the risk to the platform by providing additional attack vectors.
The telnet service provides an unencrypted remote access service which does not provide for the confidentiality and integrity of user passwords or the remote session. If a privileged user were to login using this service, the privileged user password could be compromised.
Removing the telnet-server package decreases the risk of the telnet service's accidental (or intentional) activation.
AC-17(8)
CM-7(a)
CCE-27354-0 Uninstall xinetd Package The xinetd package can be uninstalled with the following command:
$ sudo yum erase xinetd
Removing the xinetd package decreases the risk of the xinetd service's accidental (or intentional) activation. AC-17(8)
CM-7
CCE-27396-1 Remove NIS Client The Network Information Service (NIS), formerly known as Yellow Pages, is a client-server directory service protocol used to distribute system configuration files. The NIS client (ypbind) was used to bind a system to an NIS server and receive the distributed configuration files. The NIS service is inherently an insecure system that has been vulnerable to DOS attacks, buffer overflows and has poor authentication for querying NIS maps. NIS generally has been replaced by such protocols as Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). It is recommended that the service be removed.
CCE-27399-5 Uninstall ypserv Package The ypserv package can be uninstalled with the following command:
$ sudo yum erase ypserv
The NIS service provides an unencrypted authentication service which does not provide for the confidentiality and integrity of user passwords or the remote session. Removing the ypserv package decreases the risk of the accidental (or intentional) activation of NIS or NIS+ services. AC-17(8)
CM-7(a)
CCE-27323-5 Enable cron Service The crond service is used to execute commands at preconfigured times. It is required by almost all systems to perform necessary maintenance tasks, such as notifying root of system activity. The crond service can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable crond.service
Due to its usage for maintenance and security-supporting tasks, enabling the cron daemon is essential. CM-7
CCE-27408-4 Disable rexec Service The rexec service, which is available with the rsh-server package and runs as a service through xinetd or separately as a systemd socket, should be disabled. If using xinetd, set disable to yes in /etc/xinetd.d/rexec. If using systemd, The rexec socket can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl disable rexec.socket
The rexec service uses unencrypted network communications, which means that data from the login session, including passwords and all other information transmitted during the session, can be stolen by eavesdroppers on the network. AC-17(8)
CM-7
CCE-27336-7 Disable rlogin Service The rlogin service, which is available with the rsh-server package and runs as a service through xinetd or separately as a systemd socket, should be disabled. If using xinetd, set disable to yes in /etc/xinetd.d/rlogin. If using systemd, The rlogin socket can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl disable rlogin.socket
The rlogin service uses unencrypted network communications, which means that data from the login session, including passwords and all other information transmitted during the session, can be stolen by eavesdroppers on the network. AC-17(8)
CM-7
IA-5(1)(c)
CCE-27337-5 Disable rsh Service The rsh service, which is available with the rsh-server package and runs as a service through xinetd or separately as a systemd socket, should be disabled. If using xinetd, set disable to yes in /etc/xinetd.d/rsh. If using systemd, The rsh socket can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl disable rsh.socket
The rsh service uses unencrypted network communications, which means that data from the login session, including passwords and all other information transmitted during the session, can be stolen by eavesdroppers on the network. AC-17(8)
CM-7
IA-5(1)(c)
CCE-80216-5 Enable the OpenSSH Service The SSH server service, sshd, is commonly needed. The sshd service can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable sshd.service
Without protection of the transmitted information, confidentiality, and integrity may be compromised because unprotected communications can be intercepted and either read or altered.

This checklist item applies to both internal and external networks and all types of information system components from which information can be transmitted (e.g., servers, mobile devices, notebook computers, printers, copiers, scanners, etc). Communication paths outside the physical protection of a controlled boundary are exposed to the possibility of interception and modification.
SC-8
CCE-27401-9 Disable telnet Service The telnet service configuration file /etc/xinetd.d/telnet is not created automatically. If it was created manually, check the /etc/xinetd.d/telnet file and ensure that disable = no is changed to read disable = yes as follows below:
# description: The telnet server serves telnet sessions; it uses \\
#       unencrypted username/password pairs for authentication.
service telnet
{
        flags           = REUSE
        socket_type     = stream

        wait            = no
        user            = root
        server          = /usr/sbin/in.telnetd
        log_on_failure  += USERID
        disable         = yes
}
If the /etc/xinetd.d/telnet file does not exist, make sure that the activation of the telnet service on system boot is disabled via the following command: The rexec socket can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl disable rexec.socket
The telnet protocol uses unencrypted network communication, which means that data from the login session, including passwords and all other information transmitted during the session, can be stolen by eavesdroppers on the network. The telnet protocol is also subject to man-in-the-middle attacks. AC-17(8)
CM-7
IA-5(1)(c)
CCE-27443-1 Disable xinetd Service The xinetd service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl disable xinetd.service
The xinetd service provides a dedicated listener service for some programs, which is no longer necessary for commonly-used network services. Disabling it ensures that these uncommon services are not running, and also prevents attacks against xinetd itself. AC-17(8)
CM-7
CCE-27385-4 Disable ypbind Service The ypbind service, which allows the system to act as a client in a NIS or NIS+ domain, should be disabled. The ypbind service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl disable ypbind.service
Disabling the ypbind service ensures the system is not acting as a client in a NIS or NIS+ domain. This service should be disabled unless in use. AC-17(8)
CM-7
CCE-27191-6 Disable Quagga Service The zebra service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl disable zebra.service
Routing protocol daemons are typically used on routers to exchange network topology information with other routers. If routing daemons are used when not required, system network information may be unnecessarily transmitted across the network. SC-32
CCE-27464-7 Use Kerberos Security on All Exports Using Kerberos on all exported mounts prevents a malicious client or user from impersonating a system user. To cryptography authenticate users to the NFS server, add sec=krb5:krb5i:krb5p to each export in /etc/exports. When an NFS server is configured to use AUTH_SYS a selected userid and groupid are used to handle requests from the remote user. The userid and groupid could mistakenly or maliciously be set incorrectly. The AUTH_GSS method of authentication uses certificates on the server and client systems to more securely authenticate the remote mount request. AC-14(1)
CCE-27413-4 Disable Host-Based Authentication SSH's cryptographic host-based authentication is more secure than .rhosts authentication. However, it is not recommended that hosts unilaterally trust one another, even within an organization.

To disable host-based authentication, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
HostbasedAuthentication no
SSH trust relationships mean a compromise on one host can allow an attacker to move trivially to other hosts. AC-3
CM-6(b)
CCE-27320-1 Allow Only SSH Protocol 2 Only SSH protocol version 2 connections should be permitted. The default setting in /etc/ssh/sshd_config is correct, and can be verified by ensuring that the following line appears:
Protocol 2
SSH protocol version 1 is an insecure implementation of the SSH protocol and has many well-known vulnerability exploits. Exploits of the SSH daemon could provide immediate root access to the system. AC-17(8).1(ii)
IA-5(1)(c)
CCE-80224-9 Disable Compression Or Set Compression to delayed Compression is useful for slow network connections over long distances but can cause performance issues on local LANs. If use of compression is required, it should be enabled only after a user has authenticated; otherwise , it should be disabled. To disable compression or delay compression until after a user has successfully authenticated, add or correct the following line in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file:
Compression no
or
Compression delayed
If compression is allowed in an SSH connection prior to authentication, vulnerabilities in the compression software could result in compromise of the system from an unauthenticated connection, potentially wih root privileges. CM-6(b)
CCE-80220-7 Disable GSSAPI Authentication Unless needed, SSH should not permit extraneous or unnecessary authentication mechanisms like GSSAPI. To disable GSSAPI authentication, add or correct the following line in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file:
GSSAPIAuthentication no
GSSAPI authentication is used to provide additional authentication mechanisms to applications. Allowing GSSAPI authentication through SSH exposes the system's GSSAPI to remote hosts, increasing the attack surface of the system. CM-6(c)
CCE-80221-5 Disable Kerberos Authentication Unless needed, SSH should not permit extraneous or unnecessary authentication mechanisms like Kerberos. To disable Kerberos authentication, add or correct the following line in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file:
KerberosAuthentication no
Kerberos authentication for SSH is often implemented using GSSAPI. If Kerberos is enabled through SSH, the SSH daemon provides a means of access to the system's Kerberos implementation. Vulnerabilities in the system's Kerberos implementations may be subject to exploitation. CM-6(c)
CCE-80373-4 Disable SSH Support for Rhosts RSA Authentication SSH can allow authentication through the obsolete rsh command through the use of the authenticating user's SSH keys. This should be disabled.

To ensure this behavior is disabled, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
RhostsRSAAuthentication no
Configuring this setting for the SSH daemon provides additional assurance that remove login via SSH will require a password, even in the event of misconfiguration elsewhere. CM-6(a)
CCE-27377-1 Disable SSH Support for .rhosts Files SSH can emulate the behavior of the obsolete rsh command in allowing users to enable insecure access to their accounts via .rhosts files.

To ensure this behavior is disabled, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
IgnoreRhosts yes
SSH trust relationships mean a compromise on one host can allow an attacker to move trivially to other hosts. AC-3
CM-6(a)
CCE-80372-6 Disable SSH Support for User Known Hosts SSH can allow system users user host-based authentication to connect to systems if a cache of the remote systems public keys are available. This should be disabled.

To ensure this behavior is disabled, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes
Configuring this setting for the SSH daemon provides additional assurance that remove login via SSH will require a password, even in the event of misconfiguration elsewhere. CM-6(a)
CCE-27363-1 Do Not Allow SSH Environment Options To ensure users are not able to override environment options to the SSH daemon, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
PermitUserEnvironment no
SSH environment options potentially allow users to bypass access restriction in some configurations. CM-6(b)
CCE-80222-3 Enable Use of Strict Mode Checking SSHs StrictModes option checks file and ownership permissions in the user's home directory .ssh folder before accepting login. If world- writable permissions are found, logon is rejected. To enable StrictModes in SSH, add or correct the following line in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file:
StrictModes yes
If other users have access to modify user-specific SSH configuration files, they may be able to log into the system as another user. AC-6
CCE-27314-4 Enable SSH Warning Banner To enable the warning banner and ensure it is consistent across the system, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
Banner /etc/issue
Another section contains information on how to create an appropriate system-wide warning banner.
The warning message reinforces policy awareness during the logon process and facilitates possible legal action against attackers. Alternatively, systems whose ownership should not be obvious should ensure usage of a banner that does not provide easy attribution. AC-8(a)
AC-8(b)
AC-8(c)(1)
AC-8(c)(2)
AC-8(c)(3)
CCE-27082-7 Set SSH Client Alive Count To ensure the SSH idle timeout occurs precisely when the ClientAliveCountMax is set, edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config as follows:
ClientAliveCountMax 0
This ensures a user login will be terminated as soon as the ClientAliveCountMax is reached. AC-2(5)
SA-8
AC-12
CCE-27295-5 Use Only FIPS 140-2 Validated Ciphers Limit the ciphers to those algorithms which are FIPS-approved. Counter (CTR) mode is also preferred over cipher-block chaining (CBC) mode. The following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config demonstrates use of FIPS 140-2 validated ciphers:
Ciphers aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr


The following ciphers are FIPS 140-2 certified on RHEL 7:
- aes128-ctr
- aes192-ctr
- aes256-ctr
- aes128-cbc
- aes192-cbc
- aes256-cbc
- 3des-cbc
- rijndael-cbc@lysator.liu.se

Any combination of the above ciphers will pass this check. Official FIPS 140-2 paperwork for RHEL7 can be found at http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/STM/cmvp/documents/140-1/140sp/140sp2630.pdf.
Unapproved mechanisms that are used for authentication to the cryptographic module are not verified and therefore cannot be relied upon to provide confidentiality or integrity, and system data may be compromised.
Operating systems utilizing encryption are required to use FIPS-compliant mechanisms for authenticating to cryptographic modules.
FIPS 140-2 is the current standard for validating that mechanisms used to access cryptographic modules utilize authentication that meets industry and government requirements. For government systems, this allows Security Levels 1, 2, 3, or 4 for use on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
AC-3
AC-17(2)
AU-10(5)
CM-6(b)
IA-5(1)(c)
IA-7
CCE-27455-5 Use Only FIPS 140-2 Validated MACs Limit the MACs to those hash algorithms which are FIPS-approved. The following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config demonstrates use of FIPS-approved MACs:

MACs hmac-sha2-512,hmac-sha2-256


Only the following message authentication codes are FIPS 140-2 certified on RHEL 7:
- hmac-sha1
- hmac-sha2-256
- hmac-sha2-512
- hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com
- hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com
- hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com

Any combination of the above MACs will pass this check. Official FIPS 140-2 paperwork for RHEL7 can be found at http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/STM/cmvp/documents/140-1/140sp/140sp2630.pdf.
DoD Information Systems are required to use FIPS-approved cryptographic hash functions. The only SSHv2 hash algorithms meeting this requirement is SHA2. AC-17(2)
IA-7
SC-13
CCE-80223-1 Enable Use of Privilege Separation When enabled, SSH will create an unprivileged child process that has the privilege of the authenticated user. To enable privilege separation in SSH, add or correct the following line in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file:
UsePrivilegeSeparation yes
SSH daemon privilege separation causes the SSH process to drop root privileges when not needed which would decrease the impact of software vulnerabilities in the unprivileged section. AC-6
CCE-27175-9 Verify Only Root Has UID 0 If any account other than root has a UID of 0, this misconfiguration should be investigated and the accounts other than root should be removed or have their UID changed.
If the account is associated with system commands or applications the UID should be changed to one greater than "0" but less than "1000." Otherwise assign a UID greater than "1000" that has not already been assigned.
An account has root authority if it has a UID of 0. Multiple accounts with a UID of 0 afford more opportunity for potential intruders to guess a password for a privileged account. Proper configuration of sudo is recommended to afford multiple system administrators access to root privileges in an accountable manner. AC-6
IA-2(1)
IA-4
CCE-80205-8 Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in login.defs To ensure the default umask controlled by /etc/login.defs is set properly, add or correct the UMASK setting in /etc/login.defs to read as follows:
UMASK 
The umask value influences the permissions assigned to files when they are created. A misconfigured umask value could result in files with excessive permissions that can be read and written to by unauthorized users. CM-6(b)
SA-8
CCE-80136-5 Ensure All World-Writable Directories Are Owned by a System Account All directories in local partitions which are world-writable should be owned by root or another system account. If any world-writable directories are not owned by a system account, this should be investigated. Following this, the files should be deleted or assigned to an appropriate group. Allowing a user account to own a world-writable directory is undesirable because it allows the owner of that directory to remove or replace any files that may be placed in the directory by other users. AC-6
CCE-26961-3 Ensure SELinux Not Disabled in /etc/default/grub SELinux can be disabled at boot time by an argument in /etc/default/grub. Remove any instances of selinux=0 from the kernel arguments in that file to prevent SELinux from being disabled at boot. Disabling a major host protection feature, such as SELinux, at boot time prevents it from confining system services at boot time. Further, it increases the chances that it will remain off during system operation. AC-3
AC-3(3)
AC-3(4)
AC-4
AC-6
AU-9
SI-6(a)
CCE-26812-8 Verify /boot/grub2/grub.cfg Group Ownership The file /boot/grub2/grub.cfg should be group-owned by the root group to prevent destruction or modification of the file. To properly set the group owner of /boot/grub2/grub.cfg, run the command:
$ sudo chgrp root /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
The root group is a highly-privileged group. Furthermore, the group-owner of this file should not have any access privileges anyway. AC-6(7)
CCE-80379-1 Verify Group Who Owns /etc/cron.allow file If /etc/cron.allow exists, it must be group-owned by root. To properly set the group owner of /etc/cron.allow, run the command:
$ sudo chgrp root /etc/cron.allow
If the owner of the cron.allow file is not set to root, the possibility exists for an unauthorized user to view or edit sensitive information. AC-6
CCE-80378-3 Verify User Who Owns /etc/cron.allow file If /etc/cron.allow exists, it must be owned by root. To properly set the owner of /etc/cron.allow, run the command:
$ sudo chown root /etc/cron.allow
If the owner of the cron.allow file is not set to root, the possibility exists for an unauthorized user to view or edit sensitive information. AC-6
CCE-80125-8 System Audit Logs Must Be Owned By Root All audit logs must be owned by root user and group. By default, the path for audit log is
/var/log/audit/
. To properly set the owner of /var/log/audit, run the command:
$ sudo chown root /var/log/audit
To properly set the owner of /var/log/audit/*, run the command:
$ sudo chown root /var/log/audit/*
Unauthorized disclosure of audit records can reveal system and configuration data to attackers, thus compromising its confidentiality. AC-6
AU-1(b)
AU-9
IR-5
CCE-27054-6 Verify /boot/grub2/grub.cfg Permissions File permissions for /boot/grub2/grub.cfg should be set to 600. To properly set the permissions of /boot/grub2/grub.cfg, run the command:
$ sudo chmod 600 /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
Proper permissions ensure that only the root user can modify important boot parameters. AC-6(7)
CCE-27485-2 Verify Permissions on SSH Server Private *_key Key Files To properly set the permissions of /etc/ssh/*_key, run the command:
$ sudo chmod 0640 /etc/ssh/*_key
If an unauthorized user obtains the private SSH host key file, the host could be impersonated. AC-6
CCE-27311-0 Verify Permissions on SSH Server Public *.pub Key Files To properly set the permissions of /etc/ssh/*.pub, run the command:
$ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/ssh/*.pub
If a public host key file is modified by an unauthorized user, the SSH service may be compromised. AC-6
CCE-80135-7 Ensure All Files Are Owned by a Group If any files are not owned by a group, then the cause of their lack of group-ownership should be investigated. Following this, the files should be deleted or assigned to an appropriate group. Unowned files do not directly imply a security problem, but they are generally a sign that something is amiss. They may be caused by an intruder, by incorrect software installation or draft software removal, or by failure to remove all files belonging to a deleted account. The files should be repaired so they will not cause problems when accounts are created in the future, and the cause should be discovered and addressed. AC-3(4)
AC-6
IA-2
CCE-26860-7 Verify /boot/grub2/grub.cfg User Ownership The file /boot/grub2/grub.cfg should be owned by the root user to prevent destruction or modification of the file. To properly set the owner of /boot/grub2/grub.cfg, run the command:
$ sudo chown root /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
Only root should be able to modify important boot parameters. AC-6(7)
CCE-27503-2 All GIDs referenced in /etc/passwd must be defined in /etc/group Add a group to the system for each GID referenced without a corresponding group. If a user is assigned the Group Identifier (GID) of a group not existing on the system, and a group with the Gruop Identifier (GID) is subsequently created, the user may have unintended rights to any files associated with the group. IA-2
CCE-27458-9 Mount Remote Filesystems with Kerberos Security Add the sec=krb5:krb5i:krb5p option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of any NFS mounts. When an NFS server is configured to use AUTH_SYS a selected userid and groupid are used to handle requests from the remote user. The userid and groupid could mistakenly or maliciously be set incorrectly. The AUTH_GSS method of authentication uses certificates on the server and client systems to more securely authenticate the remote mount request. AC-14(1)
CCE-80239-7 Mount Remote Filesystems with nodev Add the nodev option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of any NFS mounts. Legitimate device files should only exist in the /dev directory. NFS mounts should not present device files to users. CM-7
MP-2
CCE-80146-4 Add nodev Option to Removable Media Partitions The nodev mount option prevents files from being interpreted as character or block devices. Legitimate character and block devices should exist only in the /dev directory on the root partition or within chroot jails built for system services. Add the nodev option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of any removable media partitions. The only legitimate location for device files is the /dev directory located on the root partition. An exception to this is chroot jails, and it is not advised to set nodev on partitions which contain their root filesystems. AC-19(a)
AC-19(d)
AC-19(e)
CM-7
MP-2
CCE-80147-2 Add noexec Option to Removable Media Partitions The noexec mount option prevents the direct execution of binaries on the mounted filesystem. Preventing the direct execution of binaries from removable media (such as a USB key) provides a defense against malicious software that may be present on such untrusted media. Add the noexec option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of any removable media partitions. Allowing users to execute binaries from removable media such as USB keys exposes the system to potential compromise. AC-19(a)
AC-19(d)
AC-19(e)
CM-7
MP-2
CCE-80240-5 Mount Remote Filesystems with nosuid Add the nosuid option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of any NFS mounts. NFS mounts should not present suid binaries to users. Only vendor-supplied suid executables should be installed to their default location on the local filesystem. AC-6
CCE-80148-0 Add nosuid Option to Removable Media Partitions The nosuid mount option prevents set-user-identifier (SUID) and set-group-identifier (SGID) permissions from taking effect. These permissions allow users to execute binaries with the same permissions as the owner and group of the file respectively. Users should not be allowed to introduce SUID and SGID files into the system via partitions mounted from removeable media. Add the nosuid option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of any removable media partitions. The presence of SUID and SGID executables should be tightly controlled. Allowing users to introduce SUID or SGID binaries from partitions mounted off of removable media would allow them to introduce their own highly-privileged programs. AC-6
AC-19(a)
AC-19(d)
AC-19(e)
CM-7
MP-2
CCE-80134-0 Ensure All Files Are Owned by a User If any files are not owned by a user, then the cause of their lack of ownership should be investigated. Following this, the files should be deleted or assigned to an appropriate user. Unowned files do not directly imply a security problem, but they are generally a sign that something is amiss. They may be caused by an intruder, by incorrect software installation or draft software removal, or by failure to remove all files belonging to a deleted account. The files should be repaired so they will not cause problems when accounts are created in the future, and the cause should be discovered and addressed. AC-3(4)
AC-6
CM-6(b)
CCE-27209-6 Verify and Correct File Permissions with RPM Discretionary access control is weakened if a user or group has access permissions to system files and directories greater than the default. The RPM package management system can check file access permissions of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. Verify that the file permissions, ownership, and gruop membership of system files and commands match vendor values. Check the file permissions, ownership, and group membership with the following command:
$ sudo rpm -Va | grep '^.M'
Output indicates files that do not match vendor defaults. After locating a file with incorrect permissions, run the following command to determine which package owns it:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME

Next, run the following command to reset its permissions to the correct values:
$ sudo rpm --setperms PACKAGENAME

Permissions on system binaries and configuration files that are too generous could allow an unauthorized user to gain privileges that they should not have. The permissions set by the vendor should be maintained. Any deviations from this baseline should be investigated. AC-6
AU-9(1)
AU-9(3)
CM-6(d)
CM-6(3)
CCE-80419-5 Disable the abrt_anon_write SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean abrt_anon_write is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the abrt_anon_write SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P abrt_anon_write off
TBD
CCE-80420-3 Disable the abrt_handle_event SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean abrt_handle_event is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the abrt_handle_event SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P abrt_handle_event off
TBD
CCE-80421-1 Disable the abrt_upload_watch_anon_write SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean abrt_upload_watch_anon_write is enabled. This setting should be disabled as it allows the Automatic Bug Report Tool (ABRT) to modify public files used for public file transfer services. To disable the abrt_upload_watch_anon_write SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P abrt_upload_watch_anon_write off
TBD
CCE-80424-5 Enable the auditadm_exec_content SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean auditadm_exec_content is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled. To enable the auditadm_exec_content SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P auditadm_exec_content on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the cron_can_relabel SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean cron_can_relabel is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the cron_can_relabel SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P cron_can_relabel off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the cron_system_cronjob_use_shares SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean cron_system_cronjob_use_shares is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the cron_system_cronjob_use_shares SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P cron_system_cronjob_use_shares off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the cron_userdomain_transition SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean cron_userdomain_transition is enabled. This setting should be enabled as end user cron jobs run in their default associated user domain(s) instead of the general cronjob domain. To enable the cron_userdomain_transition SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P cron_userdomain_transition on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the daemons_dump_core SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean daemons_dump_core is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the daemons_dump_core SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P daemons_dump_core off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the daemons_use_tcp_wrapper SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean daemons_use_tcp_wrapper is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the daemons_use_tcp_wrapper SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P daemons_use_tcp_wrapper off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the daemons_use_tty SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean daemons_use_tty is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the daemons_use_tty SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P daemons_use_tty off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the deny_execmem SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean deny_execmem is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the deny_execmem SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P deny_execmem off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the deny_ptrace SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean deny_ptrace is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the deny_ptrace SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P deny_ptrace off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the domain_fd_use SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean domain_fd_use is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled. To enable the domain_fd_use SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P domain_fd_use on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the domain_kernel_load_modules SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean domain_kernel_load_modules is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the domain_kernel_load_modules SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P domain_kernel_load_modules off
TBD
CCE-80418-7 Enable the fips_mode SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean fips_mode is enabled. This allows all SELinux domains to execute in fips_mode. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled. To enable the fips_mode SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P fips_mode on
SC-13
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the gpg_web_anon_write SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean gpg_web_anon_write is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the gpg_web_anon_write SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P gpg_web_anon_write off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the guest_exec_content SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean guest_exec_content is enabled. This setting should be disabled as no guest accounts should be used. To enable the guest_exec_content SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P guest_exec_content on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the kerberos_enabled SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean kerberos_enabled is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled to allow confined applications to run with Kerberos. To enable the kerberos_enabled SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P kerberos_enabled on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the logadm_exec_content SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean logadm_exec_content is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled. To enable the logadm_exec_content SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P logadm_exec_content on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the logging_syslogd_can_sendmail SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean logging_syslogd_can_sendmail is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the logging_syslogd_can_sendmail SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P logging_syslogd_can_sendmail off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the logging_syslogd_use_tty SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean logging_syslogd_use_tty is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled as it allows syslog the ability to read/write to terminal. To enable the logging_syslogd_use_tty SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P logging_syslogd_use_tty on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the login_console_enabled SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean login_console_enabled is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled as it allows login from /dev/console to a console session. To enable the login_console_enabled SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P login_console_enabled on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the mmap_low_allowed SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean mmap_low_allowed is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the mmap_low_allowed SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P mmap_low_allowed off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the mock_enable_homedirs SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean mock_enable_homedirs is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the mock_enable_homedirs SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P mock_enable_homedirs off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the mount_anyfile SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean mount_anyfile is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled to allow any file or directory to be mounted. To enable the mount_anyfile SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P mount_anyfile on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the polyinstantiation_enabled SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean polyinstantiation_enabled is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the polyinstantiation_enabled SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P polyinstantiation_enabled off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the secadm_exec_content SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean secadm_exec_content is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled. To enable the secadm_exec_content SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P secadm_exec_content on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the secure_mode SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean secure_mode is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the secure_mode SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P secure_mode off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the secure_mode_insmod SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean secure_mode_insmod is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the secure_mode_insmod SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P secure_mode_insmod off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the secure_mode_policyload SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean secure_mode_policyload is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the secure_mode_policyload SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P secure_mode_policyload off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Configure the selinuxuser_direct_dri_enabled SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean selinuxuser_direct_dri_enabled is enabled. If XWindows is not installed or used on the system, this setting should be disabled. Otherwise, enable it. To disable the selinuxuser_direct_dri_enabled SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P selinuxuser_direct_dri_enabled off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the selinuxuser_execheap SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean selinuxuser_execheap is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the selinuxuser_execheap SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P selinuxuser_execheap off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the selinuxuser_execmod SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean selinuxuser_execmod is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled. To enable the selinuxuser_execmod SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P selinuxuser_execmod on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD disable the selinuxuser_execstack SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean selinuxuser_execstack is enabled. This setting should be disabled as unconfined executables should not be able to make their stack executable. To disable the selinuxuser_execstack SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P selinuxuser_execstack off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the selinuxuser_mysql_connect_enabled SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean selinuxuser_mysql_connect_enabled is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the selinuxuser_mysql_connect_enabled SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P selinuxuser_mysql_connect_enabled off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the selinuxuser_ping SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean selinuxuser_ping is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled as it allows confined users to use ping and traceroute which is helpful for network troubleshooting. To enable the selinuxuser_ping SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P selinuxuser_ping on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the selinuxuser_postgresql_connect_enabled SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean selinuxuser_postgresql_connect_enabled is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the selinuxuser_postgresql_connect_enabled SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P selinuxuser_postgresql_connect_enabled off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the selinuxuser_rw_noexattrfile SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean selinuxuser_rw_noexattrfile is enabled. This setting should be disabled as users should not be able to read/write files on filesystems that do not have extended attributes e.g. FAT, CDROM, FLOPPY, etc. To disable the selinuxuser_rw_noexattrfile SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P selinuxuser_rw_noexattrfile off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the selinuxuser_share_music SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean selinuxuser_share_music is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the selinuxuser_share_music SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P selinuxuser_share_music off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the selinuxuser_tcp_server SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean selinuxuser_tcp_server is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the selinuxuser_tcp_server SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P selinuxuser_tcp_server off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the selinuxuser_udp_server SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean selinuxuser_udp_server is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the selinuxuser_udp_server SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P selinuxuser_udp_server off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the selinuxuser_use_ssh_chroot SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean selinuxuser_use_ssh_chroot is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the selinuxuser_use_ssh_chroot SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P selinuxuser_use_ssh_chroot off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the ssh_chroot_rw_homedirs SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean ssh_chroot_rw_homedirs is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the ssh_chroot_rw_homedirs SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P ssh_chroot_rw_homedirs off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the ssh_keysign SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean ssh_keysign is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the ssh_keysign SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P ssh_keysign off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the ssh_sysadm_login SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean ssh_sysadm_login is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the ssh_sysadm_login SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P ssh_sysadm_login off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the staff_exec_content SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean staff_exec_content is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled. To enable the staff_exec_content SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P staff_exec_content on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the sysadm_exec_content SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean sysadm_exec_content is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled. To enable the sysadm_exec_content SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P sysadm_exec_content on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the unconfined_login SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean unconfined_login is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled. To enable the unconfined_login SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P unconfined_login on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the use_ecryptfs_home_dirs SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean use_ecryptfs_home_dirs is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the use_ecryptfs_home_dirs SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P use_ecryptfs_home_dirs off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Enable the user_exec_content SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean user_exec_content is enabled. If this setting is disabled, it should be enabled. To enable the user_exec_content SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P user_exec_content on
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the xdm_bind_vnc_tcp_port SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean xdm_bind_vnc_tcp_port is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the xdm_bind_vnc_tcp_port SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P xdm_bind_vnc_tcp_port off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the xdm_exec_bootloader SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean xdm_exec_bootloader is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the xdm_exec_bootloader SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P xdm_exec_bootloader off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the xdm_sysadm_login SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean xdm_sysadm_login is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the xdm_sysadm_login SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P xdm_sysadm_login off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the xdm_write_home SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean xdm_write_home is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the xdm_write_home SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P xdm_write_home off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the xguest_connect_network SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean xguest_connect_network is enabled. This setting should be disabled as guest users should not be able to configure NetworkManager. To disable the xguest_connect_network SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P xguest_connect_network off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the xguest_exec_content SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean xguest_exec_content is enabled. This setting should be disabled as guest users should not be able to run executables. To disable the xguest_exec_content SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P xguest_exec_content off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the xguest_mount_media SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean xguest_mount_media is enabled. This setting should be disabled as guest users should not be able to mount any media. To disable the xguest_mount_media SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P xguest_mount_media off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the xguest_use_bluetooth SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean xguest_use_bluetooth is enabled. This setting should be disabled as guests users should not be able to access or use bluetooth. To disable the xguest_use_bluetooth SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P xguest_use_bluetooth off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the xserver_clients_write_xshm SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean xserver_clients_write_xshm is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the xserver_clients_write_xshm SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P xserver_clients_write_xshm off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the xserver_execmem SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean xserver_execmem is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the xserver_execmem SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P xserver_execmem off
TBD
CCE-RHEL7-CCE-TBD Disable the xserver_object_manager SELinux Boolean By default, the SELinux boolean xserver_object_manager is disabled. If this setting is enabled, it should be disabled. To disable the xserver_object_manager SELinux boolean, run the following command:
$ sudo setsebool -P xserver_object_manager off
TBD
CCE-27326-8 Ensure No Device Files are Unlabeled by SELinux Device files, which are used for communication with important system resources, should be labeled with proper SELinux types. If any device files do not carry the SELinux type device_t, report the bug so that policy can be corrected. Supply information about what the device is and what programs use it.

To check for unlabeled device files, run the following command:
$ sudo find /dev -context *:device_t:* \( -type c -o -type b \) -printf "%p %Z\n"
It should produce no output in a well-configured system.
If a device file carries the SELinux type device_t, then SELinux cannot properly restrict access to the device file. AC-6
AU-9
CM-3(f)
CM-7
CCE-27288-0 Ensure No Daemons are Unconfined by SELinux Daemons for which the SELinux policy does not contain rules will inherit the context of the parent process. Because daemons are launched during startup and descend from the init process, they inherit the initrc_t context.

To check for unconfined daemons, run the following command:
$ sudo ps -eZ | egrep "initrc" | egrep -vw "tr|ps|egrep|bash|awk" | tr ':' ' ' | awk '{ print $NF }'
It should produce no output in a well-configured system.
Daemons which run with the initrc_t context may cause AVC denials, or allow privileges that the daemon does not require. AC-6
AU-9
CM-7
CCE-27279-9 Configure SELinux Policy The SELinux targeted policy is appropriate for general-purpose desktops and servers, as well as systems in many other roles. To configure the system to use this policy, add or correct the following line in /etc/selinux/config:
SELINUXTYPE=
Other policies, such as mls, provide additional security labeling and greater confinement but are not compatible with many general-purpose use cases.
Setting the SELinux policy to targeted or a more specialized policy ensures the system will confine processes that are likely to be targeted for exploitation, such as network or system services.

Note: During the development or debugging of SELinux modules, it is common to temporarily place non-production systems in permissive mode. In such temporary cases, SELinux policies should be developed, and once work is completed, the system should be reconfigured to .
AC-3
AC-3(3)
AC-3(4)
AC-4
AC-6
AU-9
SI-6(a)
CCE-27334-2 Ensure SELinux State is Enforcing The SELinux state should be set to at system boot time. In the file /etc/selinux/config, add or correct the following line to configure the system to boot into enforcing mode:
SELINUX=
Setting the SELinux state to enforcing ensures SELinux is able to confine potentially compromised processes to the security policy, which is designed to prevent them from causing damage to the system or further elevating their privileges. AC-3
AC-3(3)
AC-3(4)
AC-4
AC-6
AU-9
SI-6(a)
CCE-27220-3 Build and Test AIDE Database Run the following command to generate a new database:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --init
By default, the database will be written to the file /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz. Storing the database, the configuration file /etc/aide.conf, and the binary /usr/sbin/aide (or hashes of these files), in a secure location (such as on read-only media) provides additional assurance about their integrity. The newly-generated database can be installed as follows:
$ sudo cp /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
To initiate a manual check, run the following command:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --check
If this check produces any unexpected output, investigate.
For AIDE to be effective, an initial database of "known-good" information about files must be captured and it should be able to be verified against the installed files. CM-3(d)
CM-3(e)
CM-6(d)
CM-6(3)
SC-28
SI-7
CCE-26952-2 Configure Periodic Execution of AIDE At a minimum, AIDE should be configured to run a weekly scan. At most, AIDE should be run daily. To implement a daily execution of AIDE at 4:05am using cron, add the following line to /etc/crontab:
05 4 * * * root /usr/sbin/aide --check
To implement a weekly execution of AIDE at 4:05am using cron, add the following line to /etc/crontab:
05 4 * * 0 root /usr/sbin/aide --check
AIDE can be executed periodically through other means; this is merely one example.
By default, AIDE does not install itself for periodic execution. Periodically running AIDE is necessary to reveal unexpected changes in installed files.

Unauthorized changes to the baseline configuration could make the system vulnerable to various attacks or allow unauthorized access to the operating system. Changes to operating system configurations can have unintended side effects, some of which may be relevant to security.

Detecting such changes and providing an automated response can help avoid unintended, negative consequences that could ultimately affect the security state of the operating system. The operating system's Information Management Officer (IMO)/Information System Security Officer (ISSO) and System Administrators (SAs) must be notified via email and/or monitoring system trap when there is an unauthorized modification of a configuration item.
CM-3(d)
CM-3(e)
CM-3(5)
CM-6(d)
CM-6(3)
SC-28
SI-7
CCE-80374-2 Configure Notification of Post-AIDE Scan Details AIDE should notify appropriate personnel of the details of a scan after the scan has been run. If AIDE has already been configured for periodic execution in /etc/crontab, append the following line to the existing AIDE line:
 | /bin/mail -s "$(hostname) - AIDE Integrity Check" root@localhost
Otherwise, add the following line to /etc/crontab:
05 4 * * * root /usr/sbin/aide --check | /bin/mail -s "$(hostname) - AIDE Integrity Check" root@localhost
AIDE can be executed periodically through other means; this is merely one example.
Unauthorized changes to the baseline configuration could make the system vulnerable to various attacks or allow unauthorized access to the operating system. Changes to operating system configurations can have unintended side effects, some of which may be relevant to security.

Detecting such changes and providing an automated response can help avoid unintended, negative consequences that could ultimately affect the security state of the operating system. The operating system's Information Management Officer (IMO)/Information System Security Officer (ISSO) and System Administrators (SAs) must be notified via email and/or monitoring system trap when there is an unauthorized modification of a configuration item.
CM-3(5)
CCE-80377-5 Configure AIDE to Use FIPS 140-2 for Validating Hashes By default, the sha512 option is added to the NORMAL ruleset in AIDE. If using a custom ruleset or the sha512 option is missing, add sha512 to the appropriate ruleset. For example, add sha512 to the following line in /etc/aide.conf:
NORMAL = FIPSR+sha512
AIDE rules can be configured in multiple ways; this is merely one example that is already configured by default.
File integrity tools use cryptographic hashes for verifying file contents and directories have not been altered. These hashes must be FIPS 140-2 approved cryptographic hashes. SI-7(1)
CCE-80375-9 Configure AIDE to Verify Access Control Lists (ACLs) By default, the acl option is added to the FIPSR ruleset in AIDE. If using a custom ruleset or the acl option is missing, add acl to the appropriate ruleset. For example, add acl to the following line in /etc/aide.conf:
FIPSR = p+i+n+u+g+s+m+c+acl+selinux+xattrs+sha256
AIDE rules can be configured in multiple ways; this is merely one example that is already configured by default.
ACLs can provide permissions beyond those permitted through the file mode and must be verified by the file integrity tools. SI-7.1
CCE-80376-7 Configure AIDE to Verify Extended Attributes By default, the xattrs option is added to the FIPSR ruleset in AIDE. If using a custom ruleset or the xattrs option is missing, add xattrs to the appropriate ruleset. For example, add xattrs to the following line in /etc/aide.conf:
FIPSR = p+i+n+u+g+s+m+c+acl+selinux+xattrs+sha256
AIDE rules can be configured in multiple ways; this is merely one example that is already configured by default.
Extended attributes in file systems are used to contain arbitrary data and file metadata with security implications. SI-7.1
CCE-27078-5 Disable Prelinking The prelinking feature changes binaries in an attempt to decrease their startup time. In order to disable it, change or add the following line inside the file /etc/sysconfig/prelink:
PRELINKING=no
Next, run the following command to return binaries to a normal, non-prelinked state:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/prelink -ua
Because the prelinking feature changes binaries, it can interfere with the operation of certain software and/or modes such as AIDE, FIPS, etc. CM-6(d)
CM-6(3)
SC-28
SI-7
CCE-80359-3 Enable FIPS Mode in GRUB2 To ensure FIPS mode is enabled, rebuild initramfs by running the following command:
dracut -f
After the dracut command has been run, add the argument fips=1 to the default GRUB 2 command line for the Linux operating system in /etc/default/grub, in the manner below:
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="crashkernel=auto rd.lvm.lv=VolGroup/LogVol06 rd.lvm.lv=VolGroup/lv_swap rhgb quiet rd.shell=0 fips=1"
Finally, rebuild the grub.cfg file by using the
grub2-mkconfig -o
command as follows:
  • On BIOS-based machines, issue the following command as root:
    ~]# grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
  • On UEFI-based machines, issue the following command as root:
    ~]# grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/efi/EFI/redhat/grub.cfg
Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The operating system must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides assurance they have been tested and validated. AC-17(2)
CCE-27140-3 Install Virus Scanning Software Install virus scanning software, which uses signatures to search for the presence of viruses on the filesystem. Ensure virus definition files are no older than 7 days, or their last release. Configure the virus scanning software to perform scans dynamically on all accessed files. If this is not possible, configure the system to scan all altered files on the system on a daily basis. If the system processes inbound SMTP mail, configure the virus scanner to scan all received mail. Virus scanning software can be used to detect if a system has been compromised by computer viruses, as well as to limit their spread to other systems. SC-28
SI-3
CCE-26818-5 Install Intrusion Detection Software The base Red Hat platform already includes a sophisticated auditing system that can detect intruder activity, as well as SELinux, which provides host-based intrusion prevention capabilities by confining privileged programs and user sessions which may become compromised. Host-based intrusion detection tools provide a system-level defense when an intruder gains access to a system or network. SC-7
CCE-80291-8 Configure LDAP Client to Use TLS For All Transactions This check verifies that RHEL7 implements cryptography to protect the integrity of remote LDAP authentication sessions.

To determine if LDAP is being used for authentication, use the following command:
$ sudo grep -i useldapauth /etc/sysconfig/authconfig


If USELDAPAUTH=yes, then LDAP is being used. To check if LDAP is configured to use TLS, use the following command:
$ sudo grep -i ssl /etc/pam_ldap.conf
Without cryptographic integrity protections, information can be altered by unauthorized users without detection. The ssl directive specifies whether to use TLS or not. If not specified it will default to no. It should be set to start_tls rather than doing LDAP over SSL. AC-17(2)
CM-7
CCE-27096-7 Install AIDE Install the AIDE package with the command:
$ sudo yum install aide
The AIDE package must be installed if it is to be available for integrity checking. CM-3(d)
CM-3(e)
CM-6(d)
CM-6(3)
SC-28
SI-7
CCE-80358-5 Install the dracut-fips Package To enable FIPS, the system requires that the dracut-fips package be installed. The dracut-fips package can be installed with the following command:
$ sudo yum install dracut-fips
Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The operating system must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides assurance they have been tested and validated. AC-17(2)
CCE-27157-7 Verify File Hashes with RPM Without cryptographic integrity protections, system executables and files can be altered by unauthorized users without detection. The RPM package management system can check the hashes of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. To verify that the cryptographic hash of system files and commands match vendor values, run the following command to list which files on the system have hashes that differ from what is expected by the RPM database:
$ rpm -Va | grep '^..5'
A "c" in the second column indicates that a file is a configuration file, which may appropriately be expected to change. If the file was not expected to change, investigate the cause of the change using audit logs or other means. The package can then be reinstalled to restore the file. Run the following command to determine which package owns the file:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME
The package can be reinstalled from a yum repository using the command:
$ sudo yum reinstall PACKAGENAME
Alternatively, the package can be reinstalled from trusted media using the command:
$ sudo rpm -Uvh PACKAGENAME
The hashes of important files like system executables should match the information given by the RPM database. Executables with erroneous hashes could be a sign of nefarious activity on the system. CM-6(d)
CM-6(3)
SI-7(1)
CCE-27116-3 Install PAE Kernel on Supported 32-bit x86 Systems Systems that are using the 64-bit x86 kernel package do not need to install the kernel-PAE package because the 64-bit x86 kernel already includes this support. However, if the system is 32-bit and also supports the PAE and NX features as determined in the previous section, the kernel-PAE package should be installed to enable XD or NX support:
$ sudo yum install kernel-PAE
The installation process should also have configured the bootloader to load the new kernel at boot. Verify this at reboot and modify /etc/default/grub if necessary.
On 32-bit systems that support the XD or NX bit, the vendor-supplied PAE kernel is required to enable either Execute Disable (XD) or No Execute (NX) support. CM-6(b)
CCE-80258-7 Disable KDump Kernel Crash Analyzer (kdump) The kdump service provides a kernel crash dump analyzer. It uses the kexec system call to boot a secondary kernel ("capture" kernel) following a system crash, which can load information from the crashed kernel for analysis. The kdump service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl disable kdump.service
Kernel core dumps may contain the full contents of system memory at the time of the crash. Kernel core dumps consume a considerable amount of disk space and may result in denial of service by exhausting the available space on the target file system partition. Unless the system is used for kernel development or testing, there is little need to run the kdump service. AC-17(8)
CM-7
CM-6(b)
CCE-26900-1 Disable Core Dumps for SUID programs To set the runtime status of the fs.suid_dumpable kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w fs.suid_dumpable=0
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
fs.suid_dumpable = 0
The core dump of a setuid program is more likely to contain sensitive data, as the program itself runs with greater privileges than the user who initiated execution of the program. Disabling the ability for any setuid program to write a core file decreases the risk of unauthorized access of such data. SI-11
CCE-27050-4 Restrict Access to Kernel Message Buffer To set the runtime status of the kernel.dmesg_restrict kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.dmesg_restrict=1
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
kernel.dmesg_restrict = 1
Unprivileged access to the kernel syslog can expose sensitive kernel address information. SI-11
CCE-27211-2 Enable ExecShield By default on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 64-bit systems, ExecShield is enabled and can only be disabled if the hardware does not support ExecShield or is disabled in /etc/default/grub. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 32-bit systems, sysctl can be used to enable ExecShield. ExecShield uses the segmentation feature on all x86 systems to prevent execution in memory higher than a certain address. It writes an address as a limit in the code segment descriptor, to control where code can be executed, on a per-process basis. When the kernel places a process's memory regions such as the stack and heap higher than this address, the hardware prevents execution in that address range. This is enabled by default on the latest Red Hat and Fedora systems if supported by the hardware. SC-39
CCE-27127-0 Enable Randomized Layout of Virtual Address Space To set the runtime status of the kernel.randomize_va_space kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.randomize_va_space=2
If this is not the system's default value, add the following line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
kernel.randomize_va_space = 2
Address space layout randomization (ASLR) makes it more difficult for an attacker to predict the location of attack code they have introduced into a process's address space during an attempt at exploitation. Additionally, ASLR makes it more difficult for an attacker to know the location of existing code in order to re-purpose it using return oriented programming (ROP) techniques. SC-30(2)
CCE-27355-7 Set Account Expiration Following Inactivity To specify the number of days after a password expires (which signifies inactivity) until an account is permanently disabled, add or correct the following lines in /etc/default/useradd, substituting NUM_DAYS appropriately:
INACTIVE=
A value of 35 is recommended. If a password is currently on the verge of expiration, then 35 days remain until the account is automatically disabled. However, if the password will not expire for another 60 days, then 95 days could elapse until the account would be automatically disabled. See the useradd man page for more information. Determining the inactivity timeout must be done with careful consideration of the length of a "normal" period of inactivity for users in the particular environment. Setting the timeout too low incurs support costs and also has the potential to impact availability of the system to legitimate users.
Disabling inactive accounts ensures that accounts which may not have been responsibly removed are not available to attackers who may have compromised their credentials. AC-2(2)
AC-2(3)
IA-4(e)
CCE-27081-9 Limit the Number of Concurrent Login Sessions Allowed Per User Limiting the number of allowed users and sessions per user can limit risks related to Denial of Service attacks. This addresses concurrent sessions for a single account and does not address concurrent sessions by a single user via multiple accounts. To set the number of concurrent sessions per user add the following line in /etc/security/limits.conf:
* hard maxlogins 
Limiting simultaneous user logins can insulate the system from denial of service problems caused by excessive logins. Automated login processes operating improperly or maliciously may result in an exceptional number of simultaneous login sessions. AC-10
CCE-27051-2 Set Password Maximum Age To specify password maximum age for new accounts, edit the file /etc/login.defs and add or correct the following line, replacing DAYS appropriately:
PASS_MAX_DAYS DAYS
A value of 180 days is sufficient for many environments. The DoD requirement is 60.
Any password, no matter how complex, can eventually be cracked. Therefore, passwords need to be changed periodically. If the operating system does not limit the lifetime of passwords and force users to change their passwords, there is the risk that the operating system passwords could be compromised.

Setting the password maximum age ensures users are required to periodically change their passwords. Requiring shorter password lifetimes increases the risk of users writing down the password in a convenient location subject to physical compromise.
IA-5(f)
IA-5(g)
IA-5(1)(d)
CCE-27002-5 Set Password Minimum Age To specify password minimum age for new accounts, edit the file /etc/login.defs and add or correct the following line, replacing DAYS appropriately:
PASS_MIN_DAYS DAYS
A value of 1 day is considered sufficient for many environments. The DoD requirement is 1.
Enforcing a minimum password lifetime helps to prevent repeated password changes to defeat the password reuse or history enforcement requirement. If users are allowed to immediately and continually change their password, then the password could be repeatedly changed in a short period of time to defeat the organization's policy regarding password reuse.

Setting the minimum password age protects against users cycling back to a favorite password after satisfying the password reuse requirement.
IA-5(f)
IA-5(1)(d)
CCE-26631-2 Set Password Strength Minimum Different Characters The pam_pwquality module's difok parameter sets the number of characters in a password that must not be present in and old password during a password change.

Modify the difok setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to equal to require differing characters when changing passwords.
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute–force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Requiring a minimum number of different characters during password changes ensures that newly changed passwords should not resemble previously compromised ones. Note that passwords which are changed on compromised systems will still be compromised, however.
IA-5(b)
IA-5(c)
IA-5(1)(b)
CCE-27512-3 Set Password to Maximum of Consecutive Repeating Characters from Same Character Class The pam_pwquality module's maxclassrepeat parameter controls requirements for consecutive repeating characters from the same character class. When set to a positive number, it will reject passwords which contain more than that number of consecutive characters from the same character class. Modify the maxclassrepeat setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to equal to prevent a run of ( + 1) or more identical characters. Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to comrpomise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.
Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex a password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
IA-5
IA-5(c)
CCE-27333-4 Set Password Maximum Consecutive Repeating Characters The pam_pwquality module's maxrepeat parameter controls requirements for consecutive repeating characters. When set to a positive number, it will reject passwords which contain more than that number of consecutive characters. Modify the maxrepeat setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to equal to prevent a run of ( + 1) or more identical characters. Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Passwords with excessive repeating characters may be more vulnerable to password-guessing attacks.
IA-5
IA-5(c)
CCE-27115-5 Set Password Strength Minimum Different Categories The pam_pwquality module's minclass parameter controls requirements for usage of different character classes, or types, of character that must exist in a password before it is considered valid. For example, setting this value to three (3) requires that any password must have characters from at least three different categories in order to be approved. The default value is zero (0), meaning there are no required classes. There are four categories available:
* Upper-case characters
* Lower-case characters
* Digits
* Special characters (for example, punctuation)
Modify the minclass setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf entry to require differing categories of characters when changing passwords.
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Requiring a minimum number of character categories makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
IA-5
CCE-26923-3 Limit Password Reuse Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords. This can be accomplished by using the remember option for the pam_unix or pam_pwhistory PAM modules.

In the file /etc/pam.d/system-auth, append remember= to the line which refers to the pam_unix.so or pam_pwhistory.somodule, as shown below:
  • for the pam_unix.so case:
    password sufficient pam_unix.so ...existing_options... remember=
  • for the pam_pwhistory.so case:
    password requisite pam_pwhistory.so ...existing_options... remember=
The DoD STIG requirement is 5 passwords.
Preventing re-use of previous passwords helps ensure that a compromised password is not re-used by a user. IA-5(f)
IA-5(1)(e)
CCE-26486-1 Set Password Warning Age To specify how many days prior to password expiration that a warning will be issued to users, edit the file /etc/login.defs and add or correct the following line, replacing DAYS appropriately:
PASS_WARN_AGE DAYS
The DoD requirement is 7.
Setting the password warning age enables users to make the change at a practical time. AC-2(2)
IA-5(f)
CCE-27557-8 Set Interactive Session Timeout Setting the TMOUT option in /etc/profile ensures that all user sessions will terminate based on inactivity. The TMOUT setting in /etc/profile should read as follows:
TMOUT=
Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended. AC-12
SC-10
CCE-27303-7 Modify the System Login Banner To configure the system login banner edit /etc/issue. Replace the default text with a message compliant with the local site policy or a legal disclaimer. The DoD required text is either:

You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions:
-The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations.
-At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS.
-Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose.
-This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests -- not for your personal benefit or privacy.
-Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details.


OR:

I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't.
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

System use notifications are required only for access via login interfaces with human users and are not required when such human interfaces do not exist.
AC-8(a)
AC-8(b)
AC-8(c)(1)
AC-8(c)(2)
AC-8(c)(3)
CCE-27275-7 Set Last Logon/Access Notification To configure the system to notify users of last logon/access using pam_lastlog, add or correct the pam_lastlog settings in /etc/pam.d/postlogin to read as follows:
session     [success=1 default=ignore] pam_succeed_if.so service !~ gdm* service !~ su* quiet
session     [default=1]   pam_lastlog.so nowtmp showfailed
session     optional      pam_lastlog.so silent noupdate showfailed
Users need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their account. Providing users with information regarding the number of unsuccessful attempts that were made to login to their account allows the user to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred and gives them an opportunity to notify administrators. AC-9
CCE-27053-8 Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/libuser.conf In /etc/libuser.conf, add or correct the following line in its [defaults] section to ensure the system will use the SHA-512 algorithm for password hashing:
crypt_style = sha512
Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kepy in plain text.

This setting ensures user and group account administration utilities are configured to store only encrypted representations of passwords. Additionally, the crypt_style configuration option ensures the use of a strong hashing algorithm that makes password cracking attacks more difficult.
IA-5(b)
IA-5(c)
IA-5(1)(c)
IA-7
CCE-27124-7 Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/login.defs In /etc/login.defs, add or correct the following line to ensure the system will use SHA-512 as the hashing algorithm:
ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512
Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kept in plain text.

Using a stronger hashing algorithm makes password cracking attacks more difficult.
IA-5(b)
IA-5(c)
IA-5(1)(c)
IA-7
CCE-27104-9 Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm The PAM system service can be configured to only store encrypted representations of passwords. In /etc/pam.d/system-auth, the password section of the file controls which PAM modules execute during a password change. Set the pam_unix.so module in the password section to include the argument sha512, as shown below:
password    sufficient    pam_unix.so sha512 other arguments...

This will help ensure when local users change their passwords, hashes for the new passwords will be generated using the SHA-512 algorithm. This is the default.
Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kepy in plain text.

This setting ensures user and group account administration utilities are configured to store only encrypted representations of passwords. Additionally, the crypt_style configuration option ensures the use of a strong hashing algorithm that makes password cracking attacks more difficult.
IA-5(b)
IA-5(c)
IA-5(1)(c)
IA-7
CCE-80207-4 Enable Smart Card Login To enable smart card authentication, consult the documentation at: For guidance on enabling SSH to authenticate against a Common Access Card (CAC), consult documentation at: Smart card login provides two-factor authentication stronger than that provided by a username and password combination. Smart cards leverage PKI (public key infrastructure) in order to provide and verify credentials. IA-2(2)
CCE-80364-3 Configure SSSD's Memory Cache to Expire SSSD's memory cache should be configured to set to expire records after 1 day. To configure SSSD to expire memory cache, set memcache_timeout to 86400 under the [nss] section in /etc/sssd/sssd.conf. For example:
[nss]
memcache_timeout = 86400
If cached authentication information is out-of-date, the validity of the authentication information may be questionable. IA-5(13)
CCE-80365-0 Configure SSSD to Expire Offline Credentials SSSD should be configured to expire offline credentials after 1 day. To configure SSSD to expire offline credentials, set offline_credentials_expiration to 1 under the [pam] section in /etc/sssd/sssd.conf. For example:
[pam]
offline_credentials_expiration = 1
If cached authentication information is out-of-date, the validity of the authentication information may be questionable. IA-5(13)
CCE-80366-8 Configure SSSD to Expire SSH Known Hosts SSSD should be configured to expire keys from known SSH hosts after 1 day. To configure SSSD to known SSH hosts, set ssh_known_hosts_timeout to 86400 under the [ssh] section in /etc/sssd/sssd.conf. For example:
[ssh]
ssh_known_hosts_timeout = 86400
If cached authentication information is out-of-date, the validity of the authentication information may be questionable. IA-5(13)
CCE-27128-8 Encrypt Partitions Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 natively supports partition encryption through the Linux Unified Key Setup-on-disk-format (LUKS) technology. The easiest way to encrypt a partition is during installation time.

For manual installations, select the Encrypt checkbox during partition creation to encrypt the partition. When this option is selected the system will prompt for a passphrase to use in decrypting the partition. The passphrase will subsequently need to be entered manually every time the system boots.

For automated/unattended installations, it is possible to use Kickstart by adding the --encrypted and --passphrase= options to the definition of each partition to be encrypted. For example, the following line would encrypt the root partition:
part / --fstype=ext4 --size=100 --onpart=hda1 --encrypted --passphrase=PASSPHRASE
Any PASSPHRASE is stored in the Kickstart in plaintext, and the Kickstart must then be protected accordingly. Omitting the --passphrase= option from the partition definition will cause the installer to pause and interactively ask for the passphrase during installation.

Detailed information on encrypting partitions using LUKS can be found on the Red Hat Documentation web site:
https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/Security_Guide/sec-Encryption.html
The risk of a system's physical compromise, particularly mobile systems such as laptops, places its data at risk of compromise. Encrypting this data mitigates the risk of its loss if the system is lost. SC-13
SC-28(1)
CCE-26957-1 Ensure Red Hat GPG Key Installed To ensure the system can cryptographically verify base software packages come from Red Hat (and to connect to the Red Hat Network to receive them), the Red Hat GPG key must properly be installed. To install the Red Hat GPG key, run:
$ sudo rhn_register
If the system is not connected to the Internet or an RHN Satellite, then install the Red Hat GPG key from trusted media such as the Red Hat installation CD-ROM or DVD. Assuming the disc is mounted in /media/cdrom, use the following command as the root user to import it into the keyring:
$ sudo rpm --import /media/cdrom/RPM-GPG-KEY
Changes to software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. The Red Hat GPG key is necessary to cryptographically verify packages are from Red Hat. CM-5(3)
SI-7
MA-1(b)
CCE-26989-4 Ensure gpgcheck Enabled In Main Yum Configuration The gpgcheck option controls whether RPM packages' signatures are always checked prior to installation. To configure yum to check package signatures before installing them, ensure the following line appears in /etc/yum.conf in the [main] section:
gpgcheck=1
Changes to any software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor.
Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA).
CM-5(3)
SI-7
MA-1(b)
CCE-26876-3 Ensure gpgcheck Enabled For All Yum Package Repositories To ensure signature checking is not disabled for any repos, remove any lines from files in /etc/yum.repos.d of the form:
gpgcheck=0
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA). CM-5(3)
SI-7
MA-1(b)
CCE-80348-6 Ensure gpgcheck Enabled for Repository Metadata Verify the operating system prevents the installation of patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components of local packages without verification of the repository metadata.

Check that yum verifies the repository metadata prior to install with the following command. This should be configured by setting repo_gpgcheck to 1 in /etc/yum.conf.
Changes to any software components can have significant effects to the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered and has been provided by a trusted vendor.

Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.

Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. The operating system should not have to verify the software again.

NOTE: For U.S. Military systems, this requirement does not mandate DoD certificates for this purpose; however, the certificate used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority.
CM-5(3)
CCE-80347-8 Ensure gpgcheck Enabled for Local Packages Yum should be configured to verify the signature(s) of local packages prior to installation. To configure yum to verify signatures of local packages, set the localpkg_gpgcheck to 1 in /etc/yum.conf. Changes to any software components can have significant effects to the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered and has been provided by a trusted vendor.

Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
CM-5(3)
CCE-80174-6 Ensure System is Not Acting as a Network Sniffer The system should not be acting as a network sniffer, which can capture all traffic on the network to which it is connected. Run the following to determine if any interface is running in promiscuous mode:
$ ip link | grep PROMISC
Network interfaces in promiscuous mode allow for the capture of all network traffic visible to the system. If unauthorized individuals can access these applications, it may allow them to collect information such as logon IDs, passwords, and key exchanges between systems.

If the system is being used to perform a network troubleshooting function, the use of these tools must be documented with the Information Systems Security Manager (ISSM) and restricted to only authorized personnel.
CM-7
CM-7(2).1(i)

MA-3
CCE-80177-9 Disable Support for RPC IPv6 RPC services for NFSv4 try to load transport modules for udp6 and tcp6 by default, even if IPv6 has been disabled in /etc/modprobe.d. To prevent RPC services such as rpc.mountd from attempting to start IPv6 network listeners, remove or comment out the following two lines in /etc/netconfig:
udp6       tpi_clts      v     inet6    udp     -       -
tcp6       tpi_cots_ord  v     inet6    tcp     -       -
CM-7
CCE-80185-2 Use Privacy Extensions for Address To introduce randomness into the automatic generation of IPv6 addresses, add or correct the following line in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-interface:
IPV6_PRIVACY=rfc3041
Automatically-generated IPv6 addresses are based on the underlying hardware (e.g. Ethernet) address, and so it becomes possible to track a piece of hardware over its lifetime using its traffic. If it is important for a system's IP address to not trivially reveal its hardware address, this setting should be applied.
CCE-26970-4 Enable GNOME3 Login Warning Banner In the default graphical environment, displaying a login warning banner in the GNOME Display Manager's login screen can be enabled on the login screen by setting banner-message-enable to true.

To enable, add or edit banner-message-enable to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/login-screen]
banner-message-enable=true
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-enable
After the settings have been set, run dconf update. The banner text must also be set.
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

For U.S. Government systems, system use notifications are required only for access via login interfaces with human users and are not required when such human interfaces do not exist.
AC-8(a)
AC-8(b)
AC-8(c)(1)
AC-8(c)(2)
AC-8(c)(3)
CCE-80122-5 Disable GNOME3 Automounting The system's default desktop environment, GNOME3, will mount devices and removable media (such as DVDs, CDs and USB flash drives) whenever they are inserted into the system. To disable automount and autorun within GNOME3, add or set automount to false, automount-open to false, and autorun-never to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling]
automount=false
automount-open=false
autorun-never=true
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/automount
/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/auto-open
/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/autorun-never
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Disabling automatic mounting in GNOME3 can prevent the introduction of malware via removable media. It will, however, also prevent desktop users from legitimate use of removable media. AC-19(a)
AC-19(d)
AC-19(e)
CCE-80124-1 Disable Ctrl-Alt-Del Reboot Key Sequence in GNOME3 By default, GNOME will reboot the system if the Ctrl-Alt-Del key sequence is pressed.

To configure the system to ignore the Ctrl-Alt-Del key sequence from the Graphical User Interface (GUI) instead of rebooting the system, add or set logout to string '' in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/settings-daemon/plugins/media-keys]
logout=string ''
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/settings-daemon/plugins/media-keys/logout
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
A locally logged-in user who presses Ctrl-Alt-Del, when at the console, can reboot the system. If accidentally pressed, as could happen in the case of mixed OS environment, this can create the risk of short-term loss of availability of systems due to unintentional reboot. AC-6
CCE-80117-5 Disable Geolocation in GNOME3 GNOME allows the clock and applications to track and access location information. This setting should be disabled as applications should not track system location. To configure the system to disable location tracking, add or set enabled to false in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/system/location]
enabled=false
To configure the clock to disable location tracking, add or set geolocation to false in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/clocks]
geolocation=false
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/system/location/enabled
/org/gnome/clocks/geolocation
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Power settings should not be enabled on systems that are not mobile devices. Enabling power settings on non-mobile devices could have unintended processing consequences on standard systems.
CCE-80107-6 Disable the GNOME3 Login Restart and Shutdown Buttons In the default graphical environment, users logging directly into the system are greeted with a login screen that allows any user, known or unknown, the ability the ability to shutdown or restart the system. This functionality should be disabled by setting disable-restart-buttons to true.

To disable, add or edit disable-restart-buttons to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/login-screen]
disable-restart-buttons=true
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/login-screen/disable-restart-buttons
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
A user who is at the console can reboot the system at the login screen. If restart or shutdown buttons are pressed at the login screen, this can create the risk of short-term loss of availability of systems due to reboot. AC-6
CCE-80123-3 Disable All GNOME3 Thumbnailers The system's default desktop environment, GNOME3, uses a number of different thumbnailer programs to generate thumbnails for any new or modified content in an opened folder. To disable the execution of these thumbnail applications, add or set disable-all to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/thumbnailers]
disable-all=true
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/thumbnailers/disable-all
After the settings have been set, run dconf update. This effectively prevents an attacker from gaining access to a system through a flaw in GNOME3's Nautilus thumbnail creators.
An attacker with knowledge of a flaw in a GNOME3 thumbnailer application could craft a malicious file to exploit this flaw. Assuming the attacker could place the malicious file on the local filesystem (via a web upload for example) and assuming a user browses the same location using Nautilus, the malicious file would exploit the thumbnailer with the potential for malicious code execution. It is best to disable these thumbnailer applications unless they are explicitly required. CM-7
CCE-80115-9 Disable User Administration in GNOME3 By default, GNOME will allow all users to have some administratrion capability. This should be disabled so that non-administrative users are not making configuration changes. To configure the system to disable user administration capability in the Graphical User Interface (GUI), add or set user-administration-disabled to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/lockdown]
user-administration-disabled=true
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/lockdown/user-administration-disabled
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Allowing all users to have some administratrive capabilities to the system through the Graphical User Interface (GUI) when they would not have them otherwise could allow unintended configuration changes as well as a nefarious user the capability to make system changes such as adding new accounts, etc.
CCE-80106-8 Disable the GNOME3 Login User List In the default graphical environment, users logging directly into the system are greeted with a login screen that displays all known users. This functionality should be disabled by setting disable-user-list to true.

To disable, add or edit disable-user-list to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/login-screen]
disable-user-list=true
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/login-screen/disable-user-list
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Leaving the user list enabled is a security risk since it allows anyone with physical access to the system to quickly enumerate known user accounts without logging in. AC-23
CCE-80118-3 Disable WIFI Network Connection Creation in GNOME3 GNOME allows users to create ad-hoc wireless connections through the NetworkManager applet. Wireless connections should be disabled by adding or setting disable-wifi-create to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/nm-applet]
disable-wifi-create=true
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/nm-applet/disable-wifi-create
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Wireless network connections should not be allowed to be configured by general users on a given system as it could open the system to backdoor attacks.
CCE-80119-1 Disable WIFI Network Notification in GNOME3 By default, GNOME disables WIFI notification. This should be permanently set so that users do not connect to a wireless network when the system finds one. While useful for mobile devices, this setting should be disabled for all other systems. To configure the system to disable the WIFI notication, add or set suppress-wireless-networks-available to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/nm-applet]
suppress-wireless-networks-available=true
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/nm-applet/suppress-wireless-networks-available
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Wireless network connections should not be allowed to be configured by general users on a given system as it could open the system to backdoor attacks.
CCE-80108-4 Enable the GNOME3 Login Smartcard Authentication In the default graphical environment, smart card authentication can be enabled on the login screen by setting enable-smartcard-authentication to true.

To enable, add or edit enable-smartcard-authentication to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/login-screen]
enable-smartcard-authentication=true
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/login-screen/enable-smartcard-authentication
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Smart card login provides two-factor authentication stronger than that provided by a username and password combination. Smart cards leverage PKI (public key infrastructure) in order to provide and verify credentials.
CCE-26892-0 Set the GNOME3 Login Warning Banner Text In the default graphical environment, configuring the login warning banner text in the GNOME Display Manager's login screen can be configured on the login screen by setting banner-message-text to string 'APPROVED_BANNER' where APPROVED_BANNER is the approved banner for your environment.

To enable, add or edit banner-message-text to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/login-screen]
banner-message-text=string 'APPROVED_BANNER'
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-text
After the settings have been set, run dconf update. When entering a warning banner that spans several lines, remember to begin and end the string with ' and use \n for new lines.
An appropriate warning message reinforces policy awareness during the logon process and facilitates possible legal action against attackers. AC-8(a)
AC-8(b)
AC-8(c)
CCE-80109-2 Set the GNOME3 Login Number of Failures In the default graphical environment, the GNOME3 login screen and be configured to restart the authentication process after a configured number of attempts. This can be configured by setting allowed-failures to 3 or less.

To enable, add or edit allowed-failures to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/login-screen]
allowed-failures=3
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/login-screen/allowed-failures
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Setting the password retry prompts that are permitted on a per-session basis to a low value requires some software, such as SSH, to re-connect. This can slow down and draw additional attention to some types of password-guessing attacks.
CCE-80120-9 Require Credential Prompting for Remote Access in GNOME3 By default, GNOME does not require credentials when using Vino for remote access. To configure the system to require remote credentials, add or set authentication-methods to ['vnc'] in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/Vino]
authentication-methods=['vnc']
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/Vino/authentication-methods
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Username and password prompting is required for remote access. Otherwise, non-authorized and nefarious users can access the system freely.
CCE-80121-7 Require Encryption for Remote Access in GNOME3 By default, GNOME requires encryption when using Vino for remote access. To prevent remote access encryption from being disabled, add or set require-encryption to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/Vino]
require-encryption=true
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/Vino/require-encryption
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Open X displays allow an attacker to capture keystrokes and to execute commands remotely. CM-2(1)(b)
CCE-80111-8 Enable GNOME3 Screensaver Idle Activation To activate the screensaver in the GNOME3 desktop after a period of inactivity, add or set idle-activation-enabled to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]
idle_activation_enabled=true
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/idle-activation-enabled
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
A session time-out lock is a temporary action taken when a user stops work and moves away from the immediate physical vicinity of the information system but does not logout because of the temporary nature of the absence. Rather than relying on the user to manually lock their operating system session prior to vacating the vicinity, GNOME desktops can be configured to identify when a user's session has idled and take action to initiate the session lock.

Enabling idle activation of the screensaver ensures the screensaver will be activated after the idle delay. Applications requiring continuous, real-time screen display (such as network management products) require the login session does not have administrator rights and the display station is located in a controlled-access area.
AC-11(a)
CCE-80110-0 Set GNOME3 Screensaver Inactivity Timeout The idle time-out value for inactivity in the GNOME3 desktop is configured via the idle-delay setting must be set under an appropriate configuration file(s) in the /etc/dconf/db/local.d directory and locked in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks directory to prevent user modification.

For example, to configure the system for a 15 minute delay, add the following to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings:
[org/gnome/desktop/session]
idle-delay='uint32 900'
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/session/idle-delay
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
A session time-out lock is a temporary action taken when a user stops work and moves away from the immediate physical vicinity of the information system but does not logout because of the temporary nature of the absence. Rather than relying on the user to manually lock their operating system session prior to vacating the vicinity, GNOME3 can be configured to identify when a user's session has idled and take action to initiate a session lock. AC-11(a)
CCE-80370-0 Set GNOME3 Screensaver Lock Delay After Activation Period To activate the locking delay of the screensaver in the GNOME3 desktop when the screensaver is activated, add or set lock-delay to uint32 0 in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]
lock-delay=uint32 0
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/lock-delay
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
A session lock is a temporary action taken when a user stops work and moves away from the immediate physical vicinity of the information system but does not want to logout because of the temporary nature of the absense. AC-11(a)
CCE-80112-6 Enable GNOME3 Screensaver Lock After Idle Period To activate locking of the screensaver in the GNOME3 desktop when it is activated, add or set lock-enabled to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]
lock-enabled=true
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/lock-enabled
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
A session lock is a temporary action taken when a user stops work and moves away from the immediate physical vicinity of the information system but does not want to logout because of the temporary nature of the absense. AC-11(b)
CCE-80113-4 Implement Blank Screensaver To set the screensaver mode in the GNOME3 desktop to a blank screen, add or set picture-uri to string '' in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]
picture-uri=string ''
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/picture-uri
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Setting the screensaver mode to blank-only conceals the contents of the display from passersby. AC-11(b)
CCE-80114-2 Disable Full User Name on Splash Shield By default when the screen is locked, the splash shield will show the user's full name. This should be disabled to prevent casual observers from seeing who has access to the system. This can be disabled by adding or setting show-full-name-in-top-bar to false in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]
show-full-name-in-top-bar=false
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/show-full-name-in-top-bar
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Setting the splash screen to not reveal the logged in user's name conceals who has access to the system from passersby.
CCE-80371-8 Ensure Users Cannot Change GNOME3 Session Settings If not already configured, ensure that users cannot change GNOME3 session idle and lock settings by adding /org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/lock-delay and /org/gnome/desktop/session/idle-delay to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/lock-delay
/org/gnome/desktop/session/idle-delay
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
A session time-out lock is a temporary action taken when a user stops work and moves away from the immediate physical vicinity of the information system but does not logout because of the temporary nature of the absence. Rather than relying on the user to manually lock their operating system session prior to vacating the vicinity, GNOME desktops can be configured to identify when a user's session has idled and take action to initiate the session lock. As such, users should not be allowed to change session settings. AC-11(a)
CCE-27446-4 Configure GNOME3 DConf User Profile By default, DConf provides a standard user profile. This profile contains a list of DConf configuration databases. The user profile and database always take the highest priority. As such the DConf User profile should always exist and be configured correctly.

To make sure that the user profile is configured correctly, the /etc/dconf/profile/user should be set as follows:
user-db:user
system-db:local
system-db:site
system-db:distro
Failure to have a functional DConf profile prevents GNOME3 configuration settings from being enforced for all users and allows various security risks.
CCE-80226-4 Enable Encrypted X11 Fordwarding By default, remote X11 connections are not encrypted when initiated by users. SSH has the capability to encrypt remote X11 connections when SSH's X11Forwarding option is enabled.

To enable X11 Forwarding, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
X11Forwarding yes
Open X displays allow an attacker to capture keystrokes and to execute commands remotely. CM-2(1)(b)
CCE-80104-3 Disable GDM Automatic Login The GNOME Display Manager (GDM) can allow users to automatically login without user interaction or credentials. User should always be required to authenticate themselves to the system that they are authorized to use. To disable user ability to automatically login to the system, set the AutomaticLoginEnable to false in the [daemon] section in /etc/gdm/custom.conf. For example:
[daemon]
AutomaticLoginEnable=false
Failure to restrict system access to authenticated users negatively impacts operating system security. CM-6(b)
CCE-80105-0 Disable GDM Guest Login The GNOME Display Manager (GDM) can allow users to login without credentials which can be useful for public kiosk scenarios. Allowing users to login without credentials or "guest" account access has inherent security risks and should be disabled. To do disable timed logins or guest account access, set the TimedLoginEnable to false in the [daemon] section in /etc/gdm/custom.conf. For example:
[daemon]
TimedLoginEnable=false
Failure to restrict system access to authenticated users negatively impacts operating system security. CM-6(b)
CCE-80346-0 Ensure YUM Removes Previous Package Versions Yum should be configured to remove previous software components after previous versions have been installed. To configure yum to remove the previous software components after updating, set the clean_requirements_on_remove to 1 in /etc/yum.conf. Previous versions of software components that are not removed from the information system after updates have been installed may be exploited by some adversaries. SI-2(6)
CCE-80137-3 Disable Mounting of cramfs To configure the system to prevent the cramfs kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:
install cramfs /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.
Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled. CM-7
CCE-26828-4 Disable DCCP Support The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is a relatively new transport layer protocol, designed to support streaming media and telephony. To configure the system to prevent the dccp kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:
install dccp /bin/true
Disabling DCCP protects the system against exploitation of any flaws in its implementation. CM-7
CCE-80138-1 Disable Mounting of freevxfs To configure the system to prevent the freevxfs kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:
install freevxfs /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.
Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled. CM-7
CCE-80140-7 Disable Mounting of hfs To configure the system to prevent the hfs kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:
install hfs /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.
Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled. CM-7
CCE-80141-5 Disable Mounting of hfsplus To configure the system to prevent the hfsplus kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:
install hfsplus /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.
Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled. CM-7
CCE-80139-9 Disable Mounting of jffs2 To configure the system to prevent the jffs2 kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:
install jffs2 /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.
Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled. CM-7
CCE-27106-4 Disable SCTP Support The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a transport layer protocol, designed to support the idea of message-oriented communication, with several streams of messages within one connection. To configure the system to prevent the sctp kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:
install sctp /bin/true
Disabling SCTP protects the system against exploitation of any flaws in its implementation. CM-7
CCE-80142-3 Disable Mounting of squashfs To configure the system to prevent the squashfs kernel module from being loaded, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/modprobe.d:
install squashfs /bin/true
This effectively prevents usage of this uncommon filesystem.
Linux kernel modules which implement filesystems that are not needed by the local system should be disabled. CM-7