The "standard" transfer modes in use over the parallel port are "defined" by a document called IEEE 1284. It really just codifies existing practice and documents protocols (and variations on protocols) that have been in common use for quite some time.
The original definitions of which pin did what were set out by Centronics Data Computer Corporation, but only the printer-side interface signals were specified.
By the early 1980s, IBM's host-side implementation had become the most widely used. New printers emerged that claimed Centronics compatibility, but although compatible with Centronics they differed from one another in a number of ways.
As a result of this, when IEEE 1284 was published in 1994, all that it could really do was document the various protocols that are used for printers (there are about six variations on a theme).
In addition to the protocol used to talk to Centronics-compatible printers, IEEE 1284 defined other protocols that are used for unidirectional peripheral-to-host transfers (reverse nibble and reverse byte) and for fast bidirectional transfers (ECP and EPP).